Lviv Polytechnic National University

Castles and their ruins are precisely the types of structures that attracted the attention of 19th century artists due to their romantic image. Artists, according to the specifics of their work, pay attention to various artistic and stylistic aspects: panoramic views, silhouette, details. The work orients the viewer to the location of the castle in the architectural and landscape environment, provides a holistic perception of the castle in space, dictates the silhouette of the structure, fixing its view from the corresponding side, reflects the colour of the object. Achromatic images convey the perception of the tonal saturation of the object and the environment, chromatic images - watercolors, oils - indicate the color scheme. It is important that the artists conveyed the emotions that the environment, objects, nature evoked in them. Each artist chose their angle and time of day to admire what he saw, which he wanted to share with others through his works. To a number of artists, who reflected in their works castles located on the territory of Ukraine, we refer Antoni Lange, Emanuel Kratochwille von Kronbach, John Henry Muntz, Karl Auer, Maciej Bogusz Zygmunt Stęczyński, Napoleon Orda. Based on the works of Napoleon Orda, we can conclude that the percentage of preserved existing stone castles is 16%, partially preserved and partially restored castles - 9%, castles that are in disrepair and are subject to complete restoration - 16%, castles in ruins, the condition of which has significantly deteriorated over the past two centuries, and whose fragments can be preserved in a state of long-term ruin - 53%, and irretrievably lost - 6%. Drawings, lithographs, engravings, watercolors and oils - today serve as an iconographic source for scientific reproductions of the type of monuments for the corresponding period of their existence. Artistic works should not be considered as the only correct source for graphic reconstructions or restoration interventions in architectural monuments, but they are an integral part of a number of historical sources from which we draw information about the type of the object and its environment for the corresponding period of time. From them we learn about the state of the structure, its silhouette, details and colours, the composition of the architectural and landscape environment, its landscaping and picturesqueness.

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