Using images obtained from UAVs to construct a DEM of riverbed territories with complex hydromorphological characteristics

Lviv Polytechnic National University
University of Life Sciences in Lublin
Lviv Polytechnic National University
Engineering geodesy department of Lviv Polytechnic National University
Lviv Polytechnic National University

The aim of the work is to investigate the accuracy of the DEM of nearshore areas using UAV material. One of the important issues in hydrological flood modelling is the high accuracy of the DEM. In the case of a complex relief type, which is associated with meandering riverbeds, it is proposed to use UAV surveys to create a DEM. Hydrological modelling involves the following main steps: creation of high precision DEMs, determination of Manning coefficients to account for the influence of the underlying surface and determination of water level changes based on the water level graph derived from observations at hydrometeorological stations. This research presents the construction of a high-precision DEM, based on a UAV survey. For high-precision modeling, the fundamental issue is the consideration of vegetation in the nearshore areas and the choice of the optimal time period for the survey. The aim of the study is to develop a methodology for the construction of a high-precision DEM from UAV data, investigate the possibilities of eliminating the influence of vegetation on point marks using software methods, determine planned channel shifts and compare the accuracy of DEM construction for surveys conducted in June 2017 and in November 2021. The section at the transition from the mountainous to marshy-hilly part of the Dniester River near the town of Stary Sambir, with complex morphometric and hydrological characteristics of the channel and banks at the site of the complex meandering of the river in a rugged ravine area was the study object of this work. Results. It was found that for 4 years between two surveys, the planned displacements of some points are up to 25-31 meters. A priori estimation of coordinates determination by points from the GNSS-receiver was carried out, the accuracy of point coordinates determination is 2-3 cm. The a priori estimate of the accuracy of determining the coordinates of points from the input survey data is: for plan coordinates - 4-6 cm for two survey periods, the error in determining the marks of points for different values of the baseline - 21-31 cm. It has been established, that the program methods of accounting of influence of high vegetation do not give the possibility of its full accounting, the average square error, in places of such vegetation makes 0,64 m. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out UAV survey in the leafless period of the year, early spring or late autumn. Scientific novelty consists in the study of the possibility of constructing a high-precision DEM for different types of vegetation from materials obtained from UAVs. The results can be used for hydrological modeling of river channels with complex hydromorphological characteristics.

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