On energy balance of the tectonosphere

Received: September 12, 2023
S. I. Subbotin Institute of Geophysics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine

Purpose of this work is to refine and complete the energy balance of the Earth's tectonosphere by thermal modeling. The methodology includes a detailed comprehensive analysis of heat generation in the crust and upper mantle throughout the studied geological history of the Earth for 4.2 billion years. Results. Experimental data on radiogenic heat generation in the Earth's crust and upper mantle are summarized. The need for a separate consideration of the heat balance for regions with different endogenous regimes on platforms, in geosynclines and oceans has been established. The average values of heat generation in the crust are about 0.4–0.5 µW/m3. In the upper mantle they are 0.04, 0.06, and 0.08 µW/m3, respectively. When taking into account the thicknesses of the solid crust (about 40 km under the platforms and geosynclines and about 6 km under the oceans) and the upper mantle (430-460 km), almost the same number of sources is found under all regions. They are distributed differently. This leads to different variants of geological history. It can be assumed that there are radiogenic heat sources with an intensity of about 0.02 μW/m3 in the transition zone to the lower mantle and in the lower mantle up to about 1100 km. At greater depths in the shell (the total mass of the Earth outside the core) and core, there are no sources. The energy balance of the tectonosphere is calculated for the platforms. Over 3.6 billion years (the period over which it is possible to describe the geological history quite accurately), about 73.5·1014 J/m2 has been carried out by the heat flow. The conductive heat flow during this time carried out 59.5·1014J/m2. The difference corresponds exactly to the needs of all active processes of this period. Originality. The experimental dates of the events also coincide with those calculated by the theory (some of which are for the first time). Practical significance. For the Phanerozoic geosynclines, such control has also been partially performed. The independently determined evolution of the mass flow (which is also of practical importance) in the geological history also agrees with the calculated values.

  1. Anisimova, I. V., Salnikova, E. B., & Kozakov, I. K. (2012). Early Baikal age (U-Pb zircon method) of the conglomerates of the Kholbonur complex of the Songino Caledonian block of Central Asia. Geochronometric isotope systems. Moscow: IGEM RAN. (in Russian).
  2. Azbel, I., & Tolstikhin, I. (1988). Early Evolution of the Earth.Apatity: Preprint. Kola Peninsula Branch of the USSR AS. (in Russian).
  3. Balashov, Yu. A. (2009) Development of a heterogeneity in the lithosphere: Geochemical evidence. Journal of Petrology, 17(1), 90-100. https://doi.org/10.1134/s0869591109010056
  4. Bibikova, E. V., Gracheva, T. V., Makarov, V. A., & Nozhkin, A. D. (1993). Age boundaries in the geological evolution of the early Precambrian of the Yenisei Ridge. Stratigraphy geological correlation, 1(1). 35-40. (in Russian)..
  5. Bluman, B. A. (2008). Weathering of basalts and unconformities in the oceanic crust: possible geodynamic implications. Regional Geology and Metallogeny,  35. 72-86.  (in Russian).
  6. Board, W, Frimmel, H & Armstrong, R (2005) Pan-African Tectonism in the Western Maud Belt: P-T-t Path for High-grade Gneisses in the H.U. Sverdrupfjella, East Antarctica. Journal of Petrology, 46(4), 671-699. https://doi.org/10.1093/petrology/egh093
  7. Boyd, F. (1989) Comрositional distinction between oceanic and cratonic lithosphere. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 96(1/2), 16-26. doi: 10.1016/0012-821X(89)90120-9
  8. Crozaz G. (1979). Uranium and thorium microdistributions in stony meteorites. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 43(1). 127-136. https://doi.org/10.1016/0016-7037(79)90052-8
  9. Gordienko, V. V. (2012). Processes in the Earth’s Tectonosphere (the advection-polymorphism hypothesis).  Saarbrucken: LAP  (in Russian).
  10. Gordienko, V. V. (2017). Thermal processes, geodynamics, deposits. http://ivangord2000.wixsite.com/tectonos
  11. Gordienko V. (2022). About geological theory. Geophysical journal, (44)2. 68-92. https://doi.org/10.24028/gj.v44i2.256266
  12. Goreva, J. S., & Burnett, D. S. (2001). Phosphate control on the thorium/uranium variations in ordinary chondrites: Improving solar system abundances. Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 36. 63-74. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1945-5100.2001.tb01810.x
  13. Handbook of physical constants of rocks. Ed. S. Clark. (1969). Moscow: Mir. (in Russian).
  14. Khain, V. E. (1977). Regional tectonics. Non-Alpine Europe and Western Asia. Moscow: Nedra. (in Russian).
  15. Kratz, K. O., & Zapolnov, A. K. (eds.). (1982). Precambrian in Phanerozoic folded belts. Leningrad, Nauka. (in Russian).
  16. Nozhkin A. D., Malyshev V. I., Sumin A. V. Ostapenko, E. I., & Gerya, T. V. (1989).  Geochronological study of metamorphic complexes in the southwestern part of the Siberian platform. Geology and geophysics, 1. 26-33. (in Russian).
  17. Nozhkin, A. D., Bayanova, T. B., Berezhnaya, N. G. Dmitrieva, N. V., & Larionov, A. N. (2012). Late Neoproterozoic sedimentary and volcanic-sedimentary series of rift structures in the southwestern margin of the Siberian craton: data on composition, age, formation conditions, and features of metallogeny. Geochronometric isotope systems. Moscow: IGEM RAN. (in Russian).
  18. Pronin, A. A. (1965). Main characteristics of the tectonic development of the Urals. Moscow: Nauka. (in Russian).
  19. Rocholl A. & Jochum K. P. (1993). Th, U and other trace elements in carbonaceous chondrites: Implications for the terrestrial and solar system Th/U ratios. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 117. 265‒278. https://doi.org/10.1016/0012-821X(93)90132-S
  20. Romer, R. & Roetzler, J. (2001). P–T–t evolution of ultrahigh-temperature granulites from the Saxon granulite massif, Germany. Part II: Geochronology. Journal of Petrology, 42(11), 1127-1153. https://doi.org/10.1093/petrology/42.11.2015
  21. Shcherbak, N. P., Artemenko, G. V., Lesnaya, I. M., & Ponomarenko, A. N. (2005). Early Precambrian Geochronology of the Ukrainian Shield. Archaeus. Kyiv: Naukova dumka. (in Russian).
  22. Shcherbak, N. P., Artemenko, G. V., Lesnaya, I. M., Ponomarenko, A. N., & Shumlyansky, L. V. (2008). Early Precambrian Geochronology of the Ukrainian Shield. Proterozoic. Kyiv: Naukova dumka. 240 p.
  23. Shcherbakov, I. B. (2005). Petrology of the Ukrainian Shield. Lvov: ZUKT. (in Russian).
  24. White W.M. (2020). Geochemistry. 2nd Edition. New. York: Wiley-Blackwell.