Numerical exploration of mixed convection heat transfer features within a copper-water nanofluidic medium occupied a square geometrical cavity

The phenomenon of mixed convection heat transfer in a homogeneous mixture is deliberated thoroughly in this study for cooper-water nanofluids flowing inside a lid-driven square cavity.  By adopting the Oberbeck-Boussinesq approximation and using the single-phase nanofluid model, the governing partial differential equations modeling the present flow are stated mathematically based on the Navier--Stokes and thermal balance formulations, where the important features of the scrutinized medium are presumed to remain constant at the cold temperature.  Note here that the density quantity in the bu