The essence and purposes of the use of forensic examinations in the pre-trial investigation of criminal proceedings

Lviv Polytechnic National University, Institute of Jurisprudence and Psychology

The article is devoted to the problem of forensic and procedural analysis of the essence and purposes of the use of forensic examinations during the pre-trial investigation of criminal proceedings. In criminal procedural activity, special knowledge is used in two forms: – in the form of involving specialists during certain investigative (search) actions; – in the form of involving an expert in criminal proceedings for examination. It is the second of the above forms of attracting special knowledge that is particularly important for criminal proceedings in general and for pre-trial investigation in particular, as this form provides a new source of evidence in criminal proceedings. It is established that the examination is most often aimed at obtaining new, previously unknown to the investigator factual data using special knowledge. In particular, the detection of foreign microobjects on material evidence seized from victims of murder, robbery, rape, etc., the establishment of initial entries in documents that have been changed, etc., ie the detection of previously unknown to the investigator facts that are evidence in the case. However, the information established by the expert does not have to be completely new to the investigator, as the examination of some evidence on the basis of others in criminal proceedings is carried out by comparing their content and finding out their consistency with each other. In this case, such a test will be complementary. . For example, the results of the reproduction of the situation and circumstances of the event, conducted to verify the testimony of the accused about how he caused damage to the victim (used weapons, methods of strikes, their number, etc.), are compared with the findings of forensic examination the victim. The coincidence of the obtained results will indicate that the event took place exactly as indicated by the suspect. Thus, the investigator has new evidence, which only confirms the facts already known to him. It is stated that on the basis of the analysis of the purposes of attracting special knowledge in criminal proceedings at the stage of pre-trial investigation of criminal proceedings it is possible to allocate certain directions of using expert conclusions, the purposes of which are: – in proving – obtaining new evidence; – in the tactical plan – nomination and verification of versions, modeling of the mechanism of commission of a criminal offense, overcoming of opposition to investigation; – in organizational terms – justification of decisions made by the investigator in the investigated criminal proceedings; – in crime prevention – the establishment of circumstances that contributed to the commission of criminal offenses. It is noted that from the purposes of using the conclusions of forensic examinations in criminal proceedings should be distinguished the purposes of forensic examinations, ie the tasks to be solved by the expert.

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Ortinski V. "The essence and purposes of the use of forensic examinations in the pre-trial investigation of criminal proceedings"