: 38-46
Lviv Polytechnic National University

In the Byzantine-Slavic culture, the tradition of honoring Sophia – the Wisdom of God – is very important. The idea of Sofia acquired special significance in the Ancient Rus written culture and fine arts. The Constantinople temple of Sophia (Hagia Sophia) in the Middle Ages was often described not only by Byzantine authors, but also by the Westerners. Information about this temple also became a common theme in the written culture of Russia. Kievan and Novgorod scribes often resorted to a description of the architecture and artistic characteristics of the majestic Constantinople Temple.

However, in architectural studies until now no visible influence of the Constantinople church on the church architecture of the East Slavic regions has been noted. This is quite strange, because in the history of the architecture of Rus’-Ukraine there are many examples of direct copying or creative processing of specific architectural models. Examples of such copying give reason to consider from this point of view also the architectural composition of the temple of Sophia in Constantinople.

Hagia Sophia's architectural composition is very specific. The constructive system of the overlappings of the Constantinople Cathedral is formed from a massive central dome and two additional vaults, which have the form the halves of dome. These vaults are located on opposite sides of the dome and restrain its load on the longitudinal axis of the structure. The huge dome and two additional vaults are the main elements of the three-part architectural composition of Sofia. Other elements of the temple are subject to these three main forms. Described three-component composition of the main Constantinople Temple is clearly read at its intersection and on the plan.

The three-part spatial composition is also the most characteristic feature of the typology of Ukrainian church construction. Many wooden churches in Ukraine consist of a three-part plan, which is shaped like a rectangle. The central part is slightly larger than the other two. The part located from the east serves as an apse. Therefore, this part from the outside often has a multi-faceted shape. In addition, a very special type is common among Ukrainian wooden churches. His peculiarity is manifested in the fact that not only the eastern but also the western part has an outside multi-faceted shape. They can be called churches with double apses.

Churches with double apses are widespread in different regions of Ukraine. Such churches are known in Galicia, Northern Bukovina, Podillya and Left-Bank Ukraine. The development of the type with double apses began with the temples that had a central dome and low vaults over two other parts. According to the author, Constantinople Cathedral served as a model, a visual example, for the emergence of churches with double apses in Ukraine. This type of church serves as a visible confirmation of the connection of Rus’-Ukraine with the Eastern Christian cultural tradition

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