The memorial plastics of the two oldest cemeteries of Boryslav is investigated. Tthe damage and losses of ensembles of cemeteries in general and separate monuments were carried out. The identification of the stone material of tombstones is performed, the state of preservation of their physical substance is analyzed.
Historical cemeteries are an integral part of the cultural landscape of each city and town, a valuable source of historical information, as well as a unique, very peculiar gallery of art works. Many historical cemeteries already today are monuments. And now all agree that such a monument as a cemetery must be kept. Unfortunately these monuments are very vulnerable to destruction. These are physical, chemical and biological factors, as well as the human factor - as is the usual vandalism or usual incompetence when performing repair or finishing works. In order to successfully create and implement a program for the preservation of historical cemeteries, one needs to thoroughly investigate them document and inventory , as well as thoroughly examine the material from which these monuments are made.
Boryslav is an ancient city, since the first written mention of the city dates back to 1387. And the second half of the nineteenth and early twentieth century, the time of the industrial development of the Boryslav oil fields, became the most heyday of both economic and cultural development. All stages of rapid development, as well as the present state of cultural heritage, are very clearly visible in the historical cemetery. The author conducted pilot field studies of two historical cemeteries of Boryslav - on the Gukova Hora and on the Potok.
On the visual signs, the identification of the stone material of tombstones, crypts and memorial plaques of the Borislav city cemeteries was performed, the location of probable stone quarries is indicated and the main factors of their destruction are described.
The most commonly used stone of local origin it is a slightly yellowish-colored light-gravel limestone and a dark-red sandstone. This material is easy to handle. But it is also easily applicable to all factors of destruction, especially biological. A small number of monuments are made from imported material such as labradorite, gabbro, granite. These materials are more complex in processing, but resistant to climatic and biological factors of destruction. Several instances of using marble were found. This material is so unusual for our climate, and has undergone such a powerful sequence that it could not even be identified.
Boryslav's historical cemeteries are very rich and interesting from the historical, artistic and ethnographic points of view but unfortunately they are in a very neglected state. They require, first of all, simple arrangement and cleaning - shear grass, cutting trees, sweeping snow and fallen leaves.
It is also necessary to take urgent, energetic steps to save historical cemeteries and to use them effectively, for example in educational or tourism projects.
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