: 86-97
Lviv Polytechnic National University
Lviv Polytechnic National University, Department of Architecture and Conservation

The article analyzes the historical and architectural development of Bakhmut, identifying five main periods of the city's development:

The first stage, the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, is a fortress city located in the area of the current central market and embankment, lying on both sides of the river. Along the river, the fortress was approximately 1,000 steps long.  The fortress was 400 steps wide on the right bank and 600 steps wide on the left bank. The fortress has 3 churches, one of them stone, and 300 wooden houses, most of them poor and small, but on straight and wide streets. The main part of the city is located on the left bank of the river.

The second stage, the late seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, saw the expansion of the city beyond the fortress, the formation of 2 suburbs with 100 houses and a church in each of the suburbs, to the west and north of the fortress. Cartographic materials also show the development of the fortress in the southeastern part. A saltworks was located behind the fortress, so the corresponding infrastructure was formed around it. The population of Bakhmut at that time amounted to 3-3.5 thousand inhabitants.

The third stage, the late seventeenth and early twentieth centuries, saw the development of the railroad and the formation of new buildings around it. The wooden fortress is being destroyed. The salt industry and the railroad are actively developing, which is characterized by the architecture, but along with the loss of sacred architecture, the cultural life of the city is declining. The course of the Bakhmutka River changes slightly. The population of the city is more than 20 thousand inhabitants.

The fourth stage. XX - 2022. The city expands along the perimeter and along the highways and railroad. The northwestern part is developing most intensively. The number of industrial and residential buildings is increasing, and multi-storey buildings are appearing. the city's population reaches 90 thousand inhabitants.

The fifth stage is the present - after the invasion of Russian troops on February 24, 2022, the city was completely destroyed by the spring of 2023.

Bakhmut was a city that had its own unique architectural identity. Today, most people remember it as a fortress, a place of fierce fighting. However, the struggle for Ukrainian identity has been going on there for centuries, trying to preserve its history and culture. Therefore, the practical value of this study is that today, in the context of the Russian-Ukrainian war, the issue of declaring, identifying, and studying in detail the existing historical cities is very relevant.

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