: 22-23
National Academy of Fine Arts and Architecture
National Academy of Arts of Ukraine

Analyzing the work of the most influential architects of the middle of the 20th century, including the American architect Frank Lloyd Wright, it is possible to declare the presence of ideas at that time, which were later designed and prescribed by trendy deconstructivist architects in the nineties and early 2000s. In the middle of the 20th century, F. Wright continued to develop the principles of organicity in architecture, supplementing them with avant-garde aesthetics. Comparison of the graphic and three-dimensional morphology of buildings, methods and means of expression of the content of the master of architecture of the 20th century Frank Lloyd Wright during the extreme period of his work with the pattern of trendy deconstructivists leads to conclusions about the presence of the aesthetics of proto-deconstructivism in his author's philosophy. In his seventies, Wright experiments with the forms and graphic language of bricolage, which naturally transform into his philosophy of organic architecture. The objects proposed to be attributed to the period of proto-deconstructivism were created by Wright over a period of almost twenty years between 1937 and 1959. By its inner essence, the graphoplastic language of the projects was sharply avant-garde, so it was not always understandable for contemporaries. Architectural historian, critic and publicist Rainer Behnem, in the introductory article to his book "A View of Modern Architecture: The Age of Masters", which was published during the postmodern era of the 80s, states the following "... in the last five years of his career, Wright created the meanest projects an old man could create” (Banham, 1975). Apologists of 20th century modernism Mies van der Rohe, Walter Gropius, Le Corbusier and Frank Wright, about whom Rainer Behnem wrote, felt in advance the stylistic flow that formed together with the avant-garde current and was defined by postmodern deconstructivism. When analyzing Wright's projects from the point of view of the presence in them of the aesthetics of proto-deconstructivism, similarities with recognized characteristic patterns of architecture of this style are revealed. Wright's author's philosophy about the naturalness, that is, the organicity of architecture, was proto-deconstructivist and was formed in parallel with global metaphysical trends.

Kryvoruchko O.Yu. (2008). Modern architecture: terminological dictionary. Lviv. Publishing house of Lviv Polytechnic National University. 136 p. [ in Ukranian ].

Marder, A.P. (1995). Arhitektura: korotkii slovnyk-dovidnyk [Short reference dictionary]. Kyiv: Budivelnyk [ in Ukranian ].

Markovsky A.I. (2016). The concept of aesthetics in architecture. Traditional and modern architecture. Kyiv. scientific and technical collection "Modern problems of architecture and urban planning".[ in Ukranian ].

Cherkes B. S., Linda S. M., (2014). Modern architecture: the last third of the 20th — the beginning of the 21st centuries: education. manual Lviv. National Lviv University. polytechnic". 351 p. — ISBN 978-966-553-979-7 [ in Ukranian ].

Banham, Reyner (1975). Age of the Masters: A Personal View of Modern Architecture Hardcover. January 1, English. ISBN-10: ‎ 0064303691. ISBN-13: ‎ 978-0064303699

Derrida, Jacques (1967). Of Grammatology. Baltimore. The Johns Hopkins University Press.  ISBN 0-8018-5830-5.

Derrida, Jacques & Eisenman, Peter (1997).  Chora L Works. The Monacelli Press; First Edition.‎ English. 208 pages. ISBN-10‏: ‎ 1885254407, ISBN-13: ‎ 978-1885254405.

Eisenman, P. I. (2017). Am Not Convinced That I Have a Style ArchDaily. Dublin.official site. URL

Frampton, Kenneth (2020). Modern Architecture: A Critical History (World of Art), London, Thames & Hudson, Fifth Edition 340 p.

Janks, Charlc (1977). The Language of Post-Modern Architecture. NY. Rizzoli.

Janks, Charlc (2011). The Story of Post-Modernism: Five Decades of the Ironic, Iconic and Critical in Architecture. London. Wiley.

Johnson, Philip & Wigley, Mark (1988). Deconstructivist architecture. The Museum of Modern Art: Distributed by New York Graphic Society Books, Little Brown and Co. ISBN 087070298X Exhibition URL:

O'Leary, Gavin (2016). Deconstructivism: The Importance of Architectural Process Design, Product Design, National College of Art and Design, Dublin.

Koolhaas, Rem. Elements of Architecture. Harvard Graduate School of Design ISBN 978-3-8365-5614-9

Romero, David (2016). The Frank Lloyd Wright Quarterly. Frank Lloyd Wright Foundation.

Salingaros, Nikos A (2010). Anti-Architecture and Deconstruction” Fourth Edition. UMBAU-VERLAG & Nikos A. Salingaros.ISBN 978 3937954 103. 

Sloan, Julie (2001). Light Screens: The Leaded Glass of Frank Lloyd Wright. Rizzoli.160 с. ISBN 0847823059.

Schumacher, Patrik (2012). Parametric Order – Architectural Order via an Agent Based Parametric Semiology. London.

O’Hagan, Simon. & Piano, Renzo (2017). The Shard is my dream building. London. Culture. Architecture. The Independent. official site.

Wright, Frank Lloyd (1995). Collected Writings, Vol. 5: 1949-1959 Hardcover. Rizzoli International Publications. English. ISBN-10: ‎ 0847818543. ISBN-13: ‎ 978-0847818549