Purpose. The purpose of the research is to conduct a systematic study of existing classifications of measures of non-tariff regulation of foreign economic activity and analysis of the dynamics of the use of specific methods of non-tariff regulation in Ukraine and the world.
Design/methodology/approach. The study examined the hypothesis of the lack of a single unified classification of measures of non-tariff regulation of foreign economic activity on the basis of a study of the most commonly used classifications in Ukraine and in the world, determining their common and distinctive features. In order to achieve the purpose of the research, general scientific methods of scientific knowledge were used: analysis and synthesis, theoretical generalization, formalization, observation, systematization.
Findings. It is found out that there are many classifications for non-tariff regulation, but the most common are classifications of the World Trade Organization and the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), but the last one is more popular and used for formation of a global database on dynamics of non-tariff regulation measures applying. In addition, the current classification of non-tariff regulation measures of the World Trade Organization deserves attention, it contains up-to-date information on the dynamics of the use of existing and initiated non-tariff regulation measures by WTO members. The hypothesis of the absence of a single unified classification of measures of non-tariff regulation of foreign economic activity based on a study of the most commonly used classifications in Ukraine and in the world, their common and distinctive features can be considered proven, as evidenced by the results of the study and generalized conclusions.
Practical implications. The studied classifications are of great practical importance, as they allow international market participants to monitor the use of non-tariff regulation measures. The hold analysis showed that among all non-tariff regulation measures in 2021, most countries in the world used technical measures related to imports, in particular, sanitary and phytosanitary measures (A) - 29750, technical barriers to trade) - 25772, as well as exports-related measures - 7804, quantitative restrictions - 6438. The same can be said about Ukrainian practice of non-tariff regulation measures usage.
Originality/value. It is established that the UNCTAD classification is the most comprehensive and suitable for the purposes of economic analysis. The impact of non-tariff measures on trade as well as on welfare is less clear than the impact of tariff restrictions. On the one hand, non-tariff measures often restrict trade flows, which has a negative impact on welfare. On the other hand, there are a number of non-tariff measures, the application of which contributes to the growth of welfare by ensuring the highest quality of goods offered on the market, which is an independent value for consumers. The use of non-tariff instruments should be treated with caution, as they are not devoid of dualism and may have contradictory consequences, as well as provoke a similar response from partner countries.
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