Features, logic and parametrs of operationalization of president-parliamentary semi-presidentialism in European countries

: 37-44
Received: March 29, 2017
Accepted: April 14, 2017
Ivan Franko National University of Lviv

In contemporary Political Science, semi-presidential  system of government is usually  understood as a structure of inter-institutional relations which simultaneously provides a popularly elected for a fixed term president and a prime minister/cabinet collectively responsible to a parlament. Nevertheless, different attributes and indicators of semi- presidentialism allow arguing that the analyzed system of government is very diverse and heterogeneous. Institutional and procedural factors of a typology of semi-presidentialism, which mostly revolve around the issues of government formation and responsibility and the possibilities of dissolving legislatures, are a key explanation in this context. This is due to the fact that “adequate” definition of semi-presidentialism should avoid theoretical and methodological problems of insecurity and endogeneity and also serve as a basis for identification of various types of the analyzed system of government. In this context, the formal institutional and procedural typology of semi-presidentialism,  in particular based on consideration of peculiarities of appointment and dismissal of prime ministers, patterns of governments’ responsibility and capabilities of legislatures’ dissolution, is primary and classic. As a result, scientists isolate president- parliamentarism (president-parliamentary system, president-parliamentary semi-presidentialism) and premier- presidentialism (premier-presidential system, premier-presidential semi-presidentialism). In this context, the problem of analyzing different features, logic and parameters of operationalization of semi-presidential system of government, especially in Europe, is quite relevant, because empirically it is not widespread and theoretically it is extremely difficult. Therefore, the outlined option of semi-presidential system of government constitutes a subject of the present study.

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