Electoral Qualifications as the Attribute of Democratic Elections (Review Article)

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Received: March 18, 2019
Accepted: April 20, 2019
Lviv National Polytechnic University
Lviv Polytechnic National University

This article examines voter eligibility/electoral qualifications as a fundamental part of universal suffrage. The authors use as a basis the typology of electoral qualifications, which provides for their division into 3 major groups: technical, protective and discriminative. In this study, we made a detailed analysis of the electoral limitations belonging to each of these three groups. In particular, among technical qualifications, special attention is paid to the analysis of age, citizenship, capacity, and residency requirements. Among protective limitations morality, service, military, and bankruptcy qualifications have been reviewed. A considerable part of the paper is dedicated to investigating of discriminative restrictions of electoral rights, specifically, gender, property, race, religion and other electoral requirements.

The restriction of the electoral rights is viewed through the prism of their transformation within the context of the global democratization process in socio-political systems.

Scientists convincingly demonstrate that the approach to assessment and necessity of applying of electoral limitations has been modified: discriminative qualifications are mostly removed, a large part of protective and technical electoral limitations is also eliminated, another part is strictly constrained by precise conditions for using, which significantly expand electorate and contribute to more comprehensive implementation of citizens electoral rights in comparison with past periods. Researchers of the electoral process emphasize the reasonableness of such electoral qualifications as age, citizenship, residency and capacity requirements concerning active electoral rights. At the same time, more ridged application of electoral limitations is acceptable with regard to passive electoral rights. In this context service, morality, literacy, etc. qualifications must be mentioned.

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