Methods of using waste in the processing of vegetable and fusel oils - a solution of glycerin, amyl and isoamyl alcohols in order to obtain ethers based on them, and thus ensure their integrated processing and creating waste-free technology of these processes are proposed. The method of utilization of glycerin solution, which is a waste in the process of hydrolysis of vegetable oil, by its esterification with acetic acid to obtain a valuable ester - triacetin, which is widely used in many sectors of the economy is proposed.
Cyclohexane oxidation is object of this research. One of the most problematic points of this process is low conversion of raw material and low selectivities for aim-products at conversions higher than 4%. One of the reasons for this is absence of modern effective catalytic systems that could increase mentioned indexes. One of the directions of solving these problems is the creation of a technology for the integrated use of the obtained oxidation products on the basis of the developed new effective catalytic systems, which will enable to increase the selectivity of the process.
This paper reports the synthesis of isopropyl laurate while using a mixture of metal oxides as a catalyst. The best conversion value was obtained in the following conditions: 393 K, isopropanol:lauric acid molar ratio is 10:1, composition of the catalyst is 33 % CuO, 33 % Ag2O and 33 % Al2O3, catalyst/lauric acid ratio is 8 % (w/w), and reaction time 2 h. Isolation of the catalysts after esterification showed that the oxides were not converted into other materials.
The features of acetic acid esterification with С4–С5–alcohols in presence of metal oxalates and other organic and inorganic salts as a catalyst have been studied. It has been found that the presence of conjugated double bonds in oxalic acid reduces the electron density on the cation of catalyst, but due to insolubility of oxalic acid salts in the reaction medium effective influence of anion almost disappears. Досліджені закономірності естерифікації оцтової кислоти спиртами С4–С5 у присутності оксалатів металів та багатьох інших мінеральних і органічних солей.
The influence of the сatalyst type on the process of esterification of 3-methyl-crotonic acid is investigated. The reaction rates and the influence of the nature and structure of a catalyst on k-value of the esterification reaction are determined. Досліджено вплив виду каталізатора на естерифікацію 3-метилкротонової кислоти, визначено константи швидкості та встановлено вплив природи та будови каталізатора на константу рівноваги у реакції естерифікації.
The features of adipic acid esterification with 1-butanol in the presence of aluminosilicates activated with sulfuric acid as a catalyst have been studied. The optimal process conditions have been determined. The influence of a heterogeneous catalyst nature on the esterification proceeding has been defined. Досліджено закономірності естерифікації адипінової кислоти 1-бутанолом у при- сутності активованих сульфатною кислотою алюмосилікатів як каталізаторів. Визначено оптимальні умови процесу. Встановлено вплив природи гетерогенного каталізатора на перебіг естерифікації.
The investigation results of the regularities of diesters of aliphatic dicarboxylic acids obtained in the presence of aprotic catalysts – Lewis acids – have been generalized. The effect of catalysts (metal salts) nature and concentrations, reagents nature and ratio, water content in them, as well as the influence of reaction temperature on the technological characteristics of esterification process have been determined. The technological aspects of the process have been examined in the presence of aprotic acids. The investigated catalysts may be reused in the technological process
The process of obtaining of aliphatic dibasic esters from dicarboxylic acids and C4-C5 alcohols in the presence of perfluoro(4–methyl–3,6–dioxaoctane)sulphonates of different metals has been researched. For the comparative estimation of catalysts their concentration was chosen identical and of such value that the rate of the process was limited exactly by the rate of chemical reaction. The dependences of technological characteristics of esterification process on catalyst nature and concentration and on reagents nature have been determined.