Wood is a material used to create works of art, architecture and has been known to people for thousands of years. In Ukraine there is a huge number of outstanding works of architectural, art, decorative, sacred, industrial and utilitarian nature. Significant efforts are being made by conservation and museum workers to preserve and care for such works. The article provides information about the history of using wood to create works of art and architecture.
Not only the ecological aspects of the construction projects, but also the energy savings and efficient construction solutions are currently a very discussed topic. In spite of still persisting prejudices against timber-based structures within our region Slovak Republic, wood-based construction systems are gradually beginning to assert themselves in the construction market. Because modern-minded investors and users are beginning to realize especially the ecological dimension of wood-based buildings. Of course, wood-based structures also have many other advantages and disadvantages.
The article develops a mathematical model of non-isothermal moisture transfer and viscoelastic deformation of wood during drying, which takes into account the anisotropy and variability of heat-mechanic characteristics. By finite element method was formulated by the implementation of mathematical models for viscoelasticity with regard to the accumulation of irreversible deformation. By object-oriented analysis is designed and implemented software implementation model in the form of documented classes.
The methods of wooden building materials protection from biological damage were analysed. Constant technical monitoring is the main preventive measure against damage of structural elements of the wooden buildings. The most effective methods from biological damage are chemical treatment, capillary infiltration, diffusion treatment and impregnation under pressure.
Six species of wood were studied by combined thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA) so as to evaluate their combustion properties in terms of the amount of energy released, the initial temperature of ignition, and the cleanness of burning. Pinus monticola, Acer saccharum, Quercus rubra, Diospyrus spp., Tabebuia spp. and Guaiacum spp. were chosen to provide a wide range of hardness values and densities. Quercus rubra burned to the hottest temperature of the samples, and also left the least amount of ash behind. For Guaiacum spp.