Mathematical modeling of temperature variation in breast tissue with and without tumor/cyst during menstrual cycle

The thermoregulation of human female body is influenced by hormonal and physiological changes in the body during the menstrual cycle.  The fluctuation of estrogen and progesterone hormones, release in the follicular phase and the luteal phase of menstrual cycle, respectively play an important role in the growth of breast ducts and lobules (milk glands).  The imbalance of these hormones causes breast tumors/cysts.  The body core temperature, blood perfusion and metabolism rate are higher in the luteal phase than the follicular phase of menstrual cycle.  In the present work, a tumor/cyst is assumed to be in the glandular layer.  A two-dimensional Pennes bioheat equation is solved to find the temperature variation in breast tissue with and without tumor/cyst during the menstrual cycle by using the finite element method.  The results show that the temperature of each layer of breast tissue in the luteal phase is higher than the follicular phase in the case of normal breast, tumorous breast and breast with cyst.

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