Optimization of Conditions of Electroslag Welding of Bandings of Rotary Units

Надіслано: Листопад 22, 2016
Переглянуто: Грудень 22, 2016
Прийнято: Грудень 26, 2016
Lviv Polytechnic National University
Lviv Polytechnic National University
Lviv Polytechnic National University
Lviv Polytechnic National University

The design of banding shells of rotary units is analyzed. It is shown that combined welding and cast manufacturing of bandings is used in the case of large structural sizes. The basic materials (30, 35, 25 HSL and 30 HML), being used in this process, are characterized by the tendency of forming of hardening structures due to the thermal cycle of welding. As a result of this, the cracks in the heat-effected zone, which lead to the destruction of the connection under the influence of welding residual stresses. The analysis of literature sources has shown that the usage of electroslag welding is perspective during the manufacturing and welding of operational cracks. Thus it is important to define the correct parameters of the welding conditions. In the case of electroslag method they are different from the arc methods and are characterized by the larger amount.
In the paper the technological process of welding of banding (tread) ring with the external diameter of 4600 mm, wall thickness of 300 mm and wideness of 500 mm, which is made of steel 35. The defining of regime parameters is made using the following recommended techniques: taking into account the chemical composition of the basic metal; according to the nomogram depending on the ratio of the thickness of the metal to the number of electrode wires; using the calculation (design) method according to the conditions of electroslag welding of the banding.
Taking into account the tendency of the steel 35 to cracks forming (cracking), the evaluation of the structure and phase composition and mechanical properties of metal of heat-effected zone of the weld. In order to define the microstructure, the cooling rate of the metal in the range of structural transformations was determined and the diagram of anisothermal decomposition of austenite was used. The technique of determination of the metal cooling rate as a result of the influence of thermal cycle of electroslag welding is proposed in the paper. It is based on the usage of special nomograms which characterize the specific features of the process being studied. The cooling rate equals   degrees per second when using the developed process parameters. Also the investigation of temperature distribution in the cross-section of the weld has been carried out. It is shown that there are no significant deviations of temperature when using the proposed regime parameters. This influences the reduction of the level of residual stresses along the thickness of the weld.
The analysis of the diagram of austenite transformation has shown that the structure of the steel 35 in the initial state is ferrite one with the mixture of pearlite and bainite. As a result of welding carrying out the structure will have a similar composition with slightly larger content of perlite and bainite. It was defined that their content in the heat-effected zone is as follows: 39 % for ferrite, 61 % for the mixture of perlite and bainite. At the same time, the investigated technology of electroslag process ensures the slow heating and cooling of the areas around the weld and obtaining of satisfactory mechanical properties of the metal.
Therefore, the combined usage of existent techniques of regime parameters determination is expedient. Also it is necessary to carry out the verification of physical and chemical properties of the metal of heat-effected zone in order to prevent the formation of hardening structures.