Medicinal plants contain many biologically active substances (BAS), which have a diverse influence on the human body and animals, so used for the prevention and treatment of diseases in medical, folk and veterinary practices. The current state of the environment in Ukraine does not allow the use of most plants as medicinal raw materials, so obtaining plants biomass in vitro is an alternative method. Advantages of the method can get a large amount of biomass, regardless of the season, environmental conditions and other factors. To remove BAS from biomass uses extraction, it is influenced by many technological factors, but data on their influence on the extraction of callus biomass in the literature is very few and they are ambiguous and unsystematic.
The purpose of the work (the aim of the work) is to determine the optimal parameters of the process of extraction of callus biomass and plant material of Arnica montana, which provide the maximum yield of the flavonoid fraction.
Callus biomass of Arnica montana in vitro on the Murassigu-Skuga nutrient medium are obtained at illumination 2000 lux, 16-hour photoperiod and at a temperature of 23 °С during 50 days. β-indolylactic acid (IAA) at a concentration of 2.0 mg / l, α-Naphthylacetic Acid (NAA) - 0.1 mg / l and kinetin - 0.5 mg / l used for to obtain and maintain a tissue culture. Optimal conditions for the extraction of the callus biomass for obtaining the maximum quantity of flavonoids are selected by changing the parameters of extraction, namely the extraction method (infusions method, in the Soxhlet and the stirring apparatus) the ratio of the raw material to the extractant (1:10, 1:20 і 1:40), the concentration of the extractant (ethanol of different concentrations - 20%, 40%, 70% and 96%). Specific color reactions was used to identify flavonoids and the spectrophotometric method was used for it’s quantitative determination. The maximum yield of flavonoids (for callus biomass - 5,62%, for grass - 6,12%) was obtained by extraction in Soxhlet with 70% ethyl alcohol with the ratio of raw material: extractant - 1:20.
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