Reserve and regulatory objects in accounting theory and practice: origins and evolution of the world accounting thought within the framework of the developments by the western ukrainian scientists of the 19th - middle 20th cent.

2019;
: pp. 13 - 29
1
Lviv Politechnic National University
2
Lviv Politechnic National University

There are growing risks in the conduct of financial and economic activities by economic agents in the conditions of the modern economy, and because a reliable information base is needed both for management purposes and for market counterparties regarding the means actually available at an enterprise to overcome the risk of loss (reduction) of capital. Accounting and public reporting is the only tool that provides information in formalized data on the size of the reserve and insurance potential established by an entity. However, there are a number of problematic issues in modern theory and practice regarding the objective display of reserve and regulatory objects in the accounting and their provision in the public financial (corporate) reporting that actualize the multi-vectoral research both in the subject area of knowledge and in the system of interdisciplinary researches. The hypothesis of this research is the assumption of elaboration in past developments, including Western Ukrainian scholars, relevant to the modern theory and practice of ideas that can objectively be considered appropriate for the improvement of modern accounting of capital reserves, a means to enhance the validity of managerial decisions to a more adequate information provision. The article analyses the historical stages of the development of reserve and regulatory objects of accounting, evaluates the fundamental principles of the formation of accounting reserves in different accounting concepts in the evolutionary aspect by distinguishing the relevant ones among them for modern research. The scientific legitimacy of the ways and approaches proposed in this article to improve the conceptual foundations of the reservation system in modern accounting rests upon the use of historically formed ideas and is based on the following approaches: it is argued that accounting tools are an important component of any paradigm of reserve management, the only formalized information tool for disclosing the real state of the security of the capital employed by an enterprise; the formation of reserves is a consequence of one of the principles of accounting - the assumption of continuity of an enterprise, embodied in the modern concept (paradigms) of sustainable development. Using general scientific and interdisciplinary methods of cognition, traditional methods for historical-analytical analysis (historical and retrospective, historical and comparative methods) and the techniques special for the sphere of accounting, the theoretical generalization was conducted of systematic approaches to organization of computational practise, evolutionary disposition of reserve and regulatory articles in accounting system and their characteristic positioning in separate accounting concepts and theories. A separate component of the study is the historiographical analysis and assessment of accounting reservation in unexplored works of Western Ukrainian theoreticians and in the practice of accounting. On the basis of the performed exploration, the following reasoning was provided regarding the author's conclusions about the appropriateness of the use of certain aspects of the historical developments in respect of regulatory principles in modern norms and regulation in any system of accounting standardization and the suggestions were substantiated about ways to adapt public accounting and financial reporting needs of modern economic conditions. On the basis of the received results, the expediency of use of approaches and techniques of organic and econometric balance theories was substantiated for the development of modern accounting reserve and regulatory objects, which confirms the relevance of research of such direction in general, and of this one in particular.

[1] Krutova, A., & Tarasova, T. (2016). Oblikovo-analitychne zabezpechennia upravlinnia rezervamy yak dzherelamy pokryttia ryzykiv [Accounting-analytical provision of management of reserves as a source coverage of risk]. Ekonomichnyi prostir – Economic scope, 115, 212-224 [in Ukrainian].

[2] Mathews, M.R., & H. Perera. (1999). Teoriya bukhgalterskogo ucheta [Accounting Theory and Development]. (E. I. Gogiy, Ya. V. Molotok, I. Smirnova, Trans.). Moscow: UNITI [in Russian].

[3] Vashchenko, V.V. (2015). Istoriia rozvytku systemy rezervuvannia [History of the system of redundancy]. Naukovyi visnyk Uzhhorodskoho universytetu. Seriia «Ekonomika» - Scientific bulletin of uzhhorod university. Series "Economics", 1(45), 2, 68-71 [in Ukrainian].

[4] Gaіduk, I.S. (2016). Teoretychni aspekty formuvannia rezerviv v systemi bukhhalterskoho obliku [Тheoretical aspects of provisioning in accounting] Ekonomichnyi visnyk universytetu – University Economic Bulletin, 31(1), 130-136 [in Ukrainian].

[5] Pikush, Yu.V., & Pylypenko, L. M. (2012). Pryntsypy formuvannia rezerviv u systemakh bukhhalterskoho obliku [Principles of formation of reserves in accounting accounting systems] Visnyk Natsionalnoho universytetu «Lvivska politekhnika». Seriia: «Menedzhment ta pidpryiemnytstvo v Ukraini: etapy stanovlennia i problemy rozvytku» - Journal "Management and Entrepreneurship in Ukraine: the stages of formation and problems of development", 721, 211-215 [in Ukrainian].

[6] Shchyrska, O.V. (2013). Ekonomichna sutnist poniattia «amortyzatsiia» ta «znos»: istorychnyi aspekt [The economic essence of the concept of "depreciation" and "depreciation": the historical aspect] Problemy teorii ta metodolohii bukhhalterskoho obliku, kontroliu i analizu: mizhnarodnyi zbirnyk naukovykh prats - Problems of theory and methodology of accounting, control and analysis, 2(20), 478-485 [in Ukrainian].

[7] Kulikova, L.I. (2015). Bukhgalterskaya kontseptsiya amortizatsii: istoriya stanovlennya i razvitiya [The accounting concept of depreciation: history and development] Mezhdunarodnyy bukhgalterskiy uchet – International accounting, 37, 2-15 [in Russian].

[8] Kozlova, O.M. (2004). Rezervy, zabezpechennia, rehuliatyvy: sutnist ta problemy terminolohii [Provisions, provision, regulation: the essence and problems of terminology] Visnyk Zhytomyrskoho derzhavnoho tekhnolohichnoho universytetu. Seriia: Ekonomichni nauky - The Journal of Zhytomyr State Technological University. Series: Economics, 1(27), 81-89 [in Ukrainian].

[9] Ponokova, D.I. (2007). Bukhgalterskiy uchet rezervov i regulyativov [Accounting reserves and regulators] Extended abstract of candidate’s thesis. Krasnodar [in Russian].

[10] Orischenko, M.M. (2009). Oblik i audyt rezerviv kapitalu: metodolohiia ta orhanizatsiia [The accounting and auditing of reserves of the capital: methodology and the organization]. Extended abstract of candidate’s thesis. Kyiv [in Ukrainian].

[11] Sokolov, Ya.V., & Sokolov, V.Ya. (2004). Istoriya bukhgalterskogo ucheta [Accounting history]. Moscow: Finance and statistics [in Russian].

[12] Chenaux-Repond, J. (1924). Kaufmännische Bilanz. Bücherabschluß – Steuerbilanz. - Stuttgart.

[13] Romer, A. (1923) Die Werterhaltung in der Unternehmung und das einschlägige Steuerrecht.­Berlin.

[14] Pietrzycki, E. (1886). Nauka teoretyczna i praktyczna rachunkowości, czyli buchalterii kupieckiej pojedynczej i podwójnej do użytku szkolnego i domowego, (Vols.1). (2nd ed., rev) Lwów: nakładem księgarni J.L. Pordesa.

[15] Au, Juliusz. (1899). Nauka rachunkowosci dla potrzeb cospodarstwa wiejskiego zastosowanej. Lwow: I. Zwiazkowa drukarnja we Lwowe.

[16] Lenkiewicz, W. (1905) Rachunkowość pojedyńcza i podwójna (dla wiekszej własnosci ziemskiei). Lwów: Drukarnja i litografia Pillera i Spolki.

[17] Ciompa, P. (1910). Grundrisse einer öekonometrie und die auf der Nationalökonomie aufgebaute natürliche theorie der buchhaltung;  ein auf Grund neuer ökonometrischer Gleichungen erbrachter Beweis, dass alle heutigen Bilanzen falsch dargestellt werden Verlag des Handelsschulvereines in Lemberg. Lemberg: Druck von Artur Goldman in Lemberg.

[18] Góra, W. (1913). Podręcznik nauki buchalterii. Buchalterya podwójna i jej zastosowanie w różnych gałęziach handlu i przemysłu. (Vols.3). Lwów:  nakładem Towarzystwa Nauczycieli Szkół Wyższych, E. Wende i Ska;

[19] Góra W. (1917). Nauka książkowości (buchalterya). Książkowośc podwójna i jej zastosowanie w handlu towarowym. (Vols.2), (2nd ed., rev). Lwów: Drukarnja przy Zakladzie narodowym imienia Ossolinskieh.

[20] Pawłowski, A. (1918). Rachunki kupieckie dla szkół handlowych. (3th ed., rev). Lwów: Кsiążnicy towarzystwa Nauczycieli szkół wyższych we Lwowie.

[21] Góra, W. (1921). Podrecznik księgowości: księgowość pojedyncza. (Vols.1), (3th ed., rev). Lwów - Warszawa: Książnica towarzystwa Nauczycieli szkół wyższych we Lwowie.

[22] Tomanek, F. (1932). Wartość w economice a w bilansach. Streszezenie wykładu inauguracyjnego, wygłoszonego w dniu 16 pażdziernika 1932 r. w wyższej szkole handlu zagranicznego we Lwowie. Odbitka z księgi zbiorowej p.t.: „Życie gospodarcze a ecjnjmika społeczna”. (Vols.2). Lwow: Bibljoteki Polskiego Towarzysiwa Economicznego we Lwowie.

[23] Bartynski W. (1937). Temat do ksiegowośći w przedsiebiorstwi detalicznym. Lwow: W-wo Zakladu Narodoej im. Ossolinskich.

[24] Gorniak, S., & Paszek, L. (1938). Ksiegowosc w handle detalicznym. Lwow: Panstwowe wydawnictwo ksiazek szkolnych we Lwowe: odbito w drukarni B. Polonieckiego we Lwowe.

[25] Eremenko, T.V. (2013) Razvitiye ucheniya ob amortizatsii v Germanii [The development of depreciation studies in Germany] Finansy i biznes - Finance and Business, 3, 116-123 [in Russian].

[26] Yaremko, I.J. (2002). Ekonomichni kategorii v metodologii obliku [Economic category in accounting methods]. Lviv: Kamenyar [in Ukrainian].

[27] Hendriksen, E.S., & Van Breda, M.F. (1997) Teoriya bukhgalterskogo ucheta [Accounting Theory]. Ya. V. Sokolova (Ed.). (Ya. V. Sokolova, Trans.).  Moscow: Finance and statistics [in Ukrainian].

[28] Veryha, Yu. A., & Oryshchenko, M. N. (2011). Rezervuvannia kapitalu: oblik, audyt i zvitnist [Capital provision: accounting, auditing and reporting]. Poltava: EPD PUET [in Ukrainian].

[29] Krupka, Ya.D. (2001). Oblik investytsii [Accounting for investments]. Ternopil: Economichna dumka [in Ukrainian].

[30] Bethge, Y. (2000). Balansovedenie [Balancing] V.D. Novodvorskiy (Ed.). (V. D. Novodvorskiy, Trans.). Moscow: Accounting [in Russian].

[31] Zhuravel, H.P., & Khomyn, P.Ia. (2008). Teorii bukhhalterskoho obliku: studii [Accounting theories: studios]. Ternopil: Economichna dumka [in Ukrainian].

[32] Sokolov, Ya.V. (1999). Bukhgalterskiy uchet: ot istokov do nashikh dney. [Accounting: from the sources to our day]. Moscow: Audit UNITI [in Russian].

[33] Lemishovska, O.S. (2017). Economic categories of “amortization” and “depreciation”: the history of accounting concept formation and development. Baltic Journal of Economic Studies, 3(5), 260-267. DOI: 10.30525/2256-0742/2017-3-5-260-267.

[34] Lemishovska, O. S. (2018). Finansovi rezultaty: retrospektyvnyi analiz rakhivnychoi praktyky, oblikovykh kontseptsii i metodyk [Financial Results: Retrospective Analysis of Bookkeeping Practice Accounting Concepts and Methods]. Oblik i finansy - Accounting and Finance. 3(81), 45-53. [in Ukrainian].

[35] Pylypenko, L.M. (2016). Rozvytok kontseptsii pobudovy systemy publichnoi zvitnosti korporatsii v umovakh postindustrialnoi ekonomiky [Development of concepts for building a system of public reporting of corporations in a post-industrial economy]. Lviv: Publishing House of Lviv Polytechnic National University [in Ukrainian].