The purpose of the study is to attempt to determine the deviation of vertical lines using trigonometric levelling and Global Navigation Satellite System (GNNS) measurements. For the last decades with the emergence of high-precision electronic theodolites and tacheometers, trigonometric levelling becomes a competitor of the geometric levelling of the II and III accuracy classes. This is primarily the definition of exceedances at distances up to 1–2 km for topographic surveying and the study of geodynamic processes in zones of the man-made load. Today, high precision robotic electronic tacheometers have been developed, which allow to significantly improve the accuracy of the measurement of zenith distances by automatically guiding the target to the maximum reflected signal. Such robotic tacheometers carry out measurements of anti-aircraft distances and distances without the direct participation of the observer. The method of achieving this goal is provided by theoretical and experimental studies to improve the accuracy of trigonometric alignment and the use of high-precision GNSS measurements. It is also important here to switch from the spatial geodetic coordinates B, L, H to local topocentric coordinates in order to provide control over the deformation of hydraulic structures and the territory of man-caused loading of the main structures in the area at the Dniester hydroaccumulation power plant (DHPP). The main result of the study is the possibility of taking into account the influence of the refraction and the gravitational field of the earth on the accuracy of the trigonometric levelling and the determination of the deviations of vertical lines from a two-way trigonometric levelling with short distances from 500 to 1000 m. Scientific novelty: the proposed approach allows to calculate the effect of the refraction and the gravitational field of the Earth on the resulting trigonometric levelling with high accuracy. In addition, using trigonometric levelling and GNSS measurements, it is possible to independently determine the deviation of the vertical lines. Practical significance: the proposed method makes it possible to estimate the effect of vertical lines on the results of two-way synchronous trigonometric levelling.
1. Biro, P. (1983). Time variations of height and gravity, Ak. Kiado.
2. Brovar, V. V. (1983). Gravitational field in engineering geodesy problems. Nedra.
3. Brovar, B. V., Jurkina, M. I., and oth. (2010). Gravimetry and geodesy. Nauchnij mir
4. Ceylan, A. (2009). Determination of the deflection of vertical components via GPS and leveling measurement: A case study of a GPS test network in Konya, Turkey. Scientific Research and Essay, 4 (12), 1438-1444.
5. Czarnecki, K. (2010). Geodezja wspolczesna. Gall.
6. Dvulit, P. D. (1998). Gravimetry. Lviv astronomical geodesic partnership.
7. Dvulit, P. D., Holubinka, Y. I. (2005). Determination of temporal deflections by ground gravimetric data and satellite measurements. Herald of Geodesy and Cartography 2, 12-21.
8. Dvulit, P. D. (2008). Physical geodesy. Expres.
9. Dvulit, P. D., Holubinka, Y. I. (2008). About determination of gravimetric components of deviations of vertical lines. Herald of Geodesy and Cartography, 2, 7-9.
10. Eremeev, V. F., & Jurkina, M. I. (1972). Theory of heights in the gravitational field of the Earth. Nedra.
11. Heiskanen, W. A., & Moritz, H. (1981). Physical geodesy. Graz.
12. Hradilek, L. (1963). Theoretische Begrundung der Methode fur die Refraktions_ und Lotabweichungs bestimmung auf jedem Punkte eines trigonometrischen Hohennetres. Studia geophysica et geodaetica, 7, 2, 118-125.
13. Jakovlev, N. V. (1989). Higher geodesy. Nedra.
14. Jordan, Eggert, Kneissl (1969). Handbuch der Vermessungkunde. Band VI. Stuttgart.
15. Litynskyi, V. O., & Perii, S. S. (2006). Trigonometric levelling in the course of geodesic networks of condensation. Modern achievements of geodesic science and production in Ukraine: Collection of scientific works ZHT UTHK, II, 125-133.
16. Molodenskij, M. S., Eremeev, V. F., & Jurkina, M. I. (1960). Methods of studying the external gravitational field and the figure of the Earth. Proceedings CNIIGAiK, 131.
17. Ogorodova, L. V. (2006). Higher geodesy. Geodezkartizdat.
18. Torge, W. (1989). Gravimetry. Walter de Gruyter.
19. Tretiak, K. R., & Sidorov, I. S. (2005). Optimization of the construction of the geodesic network of the Dniester HPSS by satellite radionavigation technologies. Modern achievements of geodesic science and production, 207-219.
20. Tretyak, K., Periy, S., Sidorov, I., & Babiy, L. (2015). High accuracy satellite and field measurements of horizontal and vertical displacements of control geodetic network on Dniester Hydroelectric Pumped Power Station (HPPS). Geomatics and environmental engineering, 1, 83-96.