Investigation of refraction field over water surfaces

https://doi.org/10.23939/istcgcap2017.02.011
Received: September 04, 2017
1
Lviv polytechnic National University
2
Lviv polytechnic National University
3
Lviv Polytechnic National University
4
Department of Geodesy, Lviv polytechnic National University

Aim. To investigate the possibilities of applying non-simultaneous reciprocal trigonometrical levelling over water surfaces while partially taking into account vertical refraction. Methodology. Experimental investigations of vertical refraction over water surfaces during day time on a plain and hilly terrains in summer. Non-simultaneous reciprocal observations were made over different water surfaces with the use of an automated electronic tachymeter. For comparing the results, the elevations between the points of observation were determined by the method of geometric levelling. Results. Average integral quantities of vertical refraction have been computed. It has been revealed that either stable or unstable stratification of the terrestrial atmospheric layer can set in over the water surfaces. Average integral components of vertical refraction have been computed from the results of reciprocal observations and the extent of the fluctuations of zenith distances. The elevations obtained as a result of non-simultaneous reciprocal levelling with vertical refraction in the presence of fluctuations of zenith distances have been compared with those obtained from the equivalent heights elevations obtained by geometric levelling. Scientific novelty. The formulas for computing the abnormal component of vertical refraction according to reciprocal linear-angular observations, as well as for computing the extent of the fluctuation of zenith distances during reciprocal observation have been obtained. Practical applicability. The possibility of applying non-simultaneous reciprocal trigonometric levelling on the routs under 1 km in length instead of geometric levelling over water surfaces.

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