energy security

Energy Security of EU and the Baltic States in the Context of Polyhybression of the Russian Federation's Foreign Policy

The article analyzes the energy security of the Baltic States (Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia) in the context of polyhybression of the Russian Federation, which acts against them multifrontally by means of hybrid methods, mainly by energy leverage. It is noted that the countries of the region are currently energy dependent on the Russian Federation. Attention is focused on the resistance of the Baltic States to official Moscow's hybression in the energy sector.

Threats and Challenges to the Visegrad Four Energy Security in the Context of the “Nord Stream-2” Gas Pipeline Realization: Determinations for Ukraine

         The energy security state of the Visegrad Group member states in the context of the implementation of the “Nord Stream-2” gas pipeline has been analyzed. The Visegrad Four countries positions regarding the realization of the gas project initiated by the Russian Federation have been considered. It has been clarified that the “Nord Stream-2” pipeline construction is a threat to energy security not only for the Visegrad States but also for the European Union.

SWOT-analysis of Ukraine's energy security

The article considers the problem of reforming of the Ukrainian energy sector, which is caused by global trends in the energy sector and by changes in Ukrainian political, economic and security priorities in the context of the Russia-Ukraine conflict. Taking into consideration efforts of the international community in combating climate change, the research analyses Ukraine’s international obligations in the context of signing the Paris Agreement 2015 on greenhouse gases emissions mitigation.