: 210-223
National University "Lviv Polytechnic" Department of Architecture and Conservation
The State Historical and Cultural Preserve in the Town of Belz
Kiss Architektur ZT GmbH, Wien

The article considers one of the groups of fortifications of the third stage of
construction of the Mykolayiv-Rozvadiv bridgehead fortification (tet de pon), which was called
«Gruppe Lysa gora» (Lysa gora group). The fortifications of the Lysa gora group are now in
danger of destruction due to the active increase of economic activities for the development of
sand deposits in quarries. The purpose of the article is to introduce into scientific circulation
information about one of the key fortifications of Mykolayiv-Rozvadivsky tet de pon, proposals
for further use of this cultural heritage site.
Mykolaiv-Rozwadiw bridgehead fortification is a complex of fortifications that protected
the bridge crossings (road and railway) across the Dniester River near the town of Rozwadiw
with entrances through the town of Mykolaiv. The fortifications were built by Austro-
Hungarian engineers in three stages: 1) in 1854-55, 1) in 1892-1902, 3) in 1912-1914.
Development of the project of a new belt of fortifications (stage 3) began in 1912, during the
Balkan crisis. According to archival sources, the main construction volumes was completed in
two years - 1913 and 1914. But this project was not fully realized due to the beginning of the
First World War.
The fortifications of the Lysa Hora group occupied a key position in the system of the
new line of fortifications, being located on the high hill in the most important direction - along
the then Lviv-Stryi highway, which approached Mykolayiv from the north.
The fortifications of the Lysa Hora group consist of six main parts: the northern
stronghold (Stützpunkt Nord), the western stronghold (Stützpunkt West), the eastern
stronghold (Stützpunkt Ost), the Great Battery (Grosse batterie), and the rear cave shelters
(Kavernen Kehle) - eastern and western sections, consisting of three groups of caves. The
strong points consist of trenches with dugouts covered with reinforced concrete slabs. There
are also underground passages and separate observation posts and cave shelters. This extensive
defense system had well-equipped artillery positions. The total garrison of the Lysa Hora group
can be estimated at 2 infantry battalions (19 officers and 1,058 soldiers per battalion), which
were also armed with 4 machine guns and two artillery batteries.
During the First World War and the Ukrainian-Polish War of 1918-1919, only shortterm
battles took place for the capture of the fortifications of Mykolayiv-Rozvadiv tet de pon.
Therefore, the fortifications were not significantly destroyed at this time. However, the main
destruction of these fortifications took place after the Second World War and at the beginning
of the 21st century.
In 2017, the fortifications of Mykolayiv-Rozvadiv tet de pon were included in the State
List of Cultural heritage of Ukraine as a historical site called Complex of fortifications and
engineering structures "Fortress of Mykolayiv". To preserve this site it is planned to create a
historical and cultural park "Fortress of Mykolayiv" as a protected area.

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