Interactive Methods and Methods for Studying the History of Ancient Greece and Rome for Students in the Specialty "Museology and Heritage Activities"

: pp. 69 - 73
L'viv Polytechnic National University

Traditionally, there is a bias attitude towards interactive methods in high school of Ukraine. A substantial part of the teachers have a stereotype idea that these methods are more suitable for learning process in schools. This instrument is still new and poorly developed in domestic didactics of high school and rarely is used in practice. Nevertheless, interactive techniques serve as important mean of narrow subjects adaptation for a wider range of students with specialization only tangentially related to the study and mastery of course. The use of interactive teaching methods yielded positive results particularly in learning the history and culture of ancient Greece and Rome by students of «Museology and protection of cultural heritage» specialty. 

Some classes were based entirely on interactive methods, the others were held with the use only of particular methods and some interactive elements. The method of discussion showed positive results among the set of proven techniques. Among the range of issues that were solved this way are following: «Athenian and Spartan models of social organization, «Rome during the flourishing era of the Republic and Golden Age of the Empire: the positive and negative aspects of both models of state organization». In this case, the implementation of method of discussion provides interaction between students and teachers where they are equal, equivalent study subjects, students may defend their point of view, reflect on what they know and can explain. This provides freedom of participants in the learning process, increases the level of self—actualization and self—identity of the future expert. Meanwhile the teacher’s role during the discussion is to organize learning process, to be a consultant who never closes the educational process on himself/herself. Central point in learning process is the communication between students, their interaction and cooperation. The learning outcomes are achieved by mutual efforts of participants in the discussion.

During the classes on the history and culture of Ancient Greece and Rome was used the method of cases, chosen from the variety of teamwork methods. In particular, this method was implemented during the practical class with the subject «Ancient Greek society in the poems of Homer’s «Тhe Iliad» and «The Odyssey». At the beginning of the lesson, students were divided into five teams, each team received a problematic task that required broader response. The work started with the method of «immersion» when the teacher offers to «dive» into the problem and highlight the main thing that should be expressed in the report. The task of each team member was to make some kind of argument in the general solution, to offer their own opinions and to find the necessary evidence from historical sources.

Each team member has to «tell» and «demonstrate» to the reporter all important information on the subject of the report. After studying in groups, students move on to problem discussion. Students’ decisions necessarily have to be confirmed by the direct evidence of historical sources. The teams have been working on the issues of the following type: «Homeric question»: the problem of Iliad and Odyssey authorship and the place of Homer in Greek culture; The balance of historical facts and myths in Homer’s poems: what can the researcher use as historical information and what has to be considered with the critical attitude; Religious beliefs and the place of religion in the daily life of the ancient Greeks by Iliad and Odyssey poems; The level development of Greek civilization, culture and science by Iliad and Odyssey poems. Each team had to submit a detailed report, that later was presented by speakers of each team. The teacher guides the work so that the speakers one by one perform the subject (up to 5 minutes per person), their speeches are completed by other group members (approximately 1 minute) and after that by students from other groups. The problem is discussed twice: within the group and the class. After the report presentation everyone was allowed to ask the team which prepared a solution questions, or to start a discussion on disputed issues. Then each group evaluates the work of teams.

The method of cases is distinguished by the high methodological level, since it contains a significant epistemological, axiological and praxeological potential. It allows acquiring considerable knowledge, to build professional skills of students and control over their acquiring, to mobilize and activate the role of teacher and student and to create conditions for spiritual and creative freedom of student. The democracy of this method meets demands of modern society and its values.

Interactive elements were present on the classes where students made presentations on the cultural history of ancient Greece or Rome, and were watching documentaries about the history of antiquity and then discussing them.

Interactive methods are more useful as means of repetition, generalization and systematization of knowledge control. They contribute to students’ conscious learning, the development of thinking, imagination, observation. As the course of history and culture of ancient Greece and Rome is presented at the first semester to the first year students, it provides not only a set of professional knowledge and skills needed to master this discipline, but in combination with the use of interactive methods helps to form applied competence of future professionals — communicational, social, intellectual and informational. Also it helps to form the basic competencies that enable students to acquire knowledge the most closely to professional practice. It is important that they save training time, the energy of teacher and students through the consolidation of educational information and accelerating pace. Thus, at such classes students learn how to study, master the work algorithm in high school, which they will practice during subsequent years of study.

1. Komar A. Iinteractive technologies in higher education [Electronic resource]. — Access: http:// 8080/jspui/bitstream/6789/375/1/ interaktuvni_tehn_VNZ.pdf. 2. Pometun A. Encyclopedia of interactive learning. — Kiev, 2012. — 142 p. 3. Pometun A., Pyrozhenko L. Interactive learning technologies: theory, practice and experience. — Kiev, 2002. — 135 p. 4. Staryeva A. Interactive technology education students in high school // Proceedings. Pedagogical science. — 2005. — T. 42. — No. 29. — 29–32 pp. 5. Staryeva A. Preparation of future history teachers to implement student—centered learning // Professionalism high school teacher: educational technology (the 90th anniversary of the Moscow State University): Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference. — Mykolaiv, 2004. — 274 p. 6. Komar A. Modernization modern educational process / Scientific works. — Kiev, 2005. — Part II. — S. 159–166. 7. Yakimova L. Enhancing the educational process in modern high school: Methodical examination. — Kiev, 2010. — 32 p. 8. Verbitsky A. Active methods of training in high school: the contextual approach. — Moskov, 1989. — 127 p. 9. Lyseyko Ya. Features of teaching the history of ancient Greece and Rome for students in direction «Museology and protection of historical and cultural monuments» // History and cultural studies. — Lviv, 2015. — No. 2. — 61–66 pp. 10. Kadykalo A. Psychology and Pedagogy. Features of academic debate. — Lviv, 2013. — 20 p. 11. Education Debate: Proceedings for the leaders debate clubs and teachers who teach debates and discussions. / Author-compiler: I.Suschenko. — Kiev, 2003. — 82 p. 12. Educational Technology: Textbook / A. N. Piechota, A. Z. Kiktenko, O. N. Lyubarskaya. — Kyiv, 2001. — 256 p. 13. Learning in Action: How to train teachers to use interactive teaching technologies. / A. Panchenkova, O. Pometun, T. Remeh. — Kiev, 2003. — 72 p.