Fundamentals of quantum thermometry

: pp. 40-47
Lviv Polytechnic National University
Lviv Polytechnic National University, Ukraine

At this moment the Temperature Unit remains the last, among 7 major units of SI, value that is not regulated at the atomic level. Such state of affairs cannot be deemed adequate for the advanced technology. After implementation of current CODATA “Temperature” redefinition, the next step in provision of scientific support for realizing the Temperature Measurement of new generation seems to be a creation of Quantum Standard on the basis of the fundamental physical constants. The Boltzmann constant consideration related only to the energy of electrons scattering in process of collision with atoms may be incomplete and therefore not quite correct. While ignoring the process of acquiring energy by electrons to which may be involved in another fundamental physical constant such as Planck constant, the obtained model would be not quite perfect. These both sides of process combine a balanced approach to the problem of temperature arising as the heat manifestation (in the case of transmission of electric current through the substance) of the conduction electrons interacting with atoms. Therefore, occurrence of the Planck constant in proposed by us the Quantum Unit of Temperature becomes reasonable. It is proved the existence of Quantum Unit of Temperature caused by single electron-phonon dissipation per second and determined its value with the uncertainty defined by the set of different physical methods. The possibility of researching the most contemporary measure of temperature on the basis of fundamental physical constants with involvement of the Standard of Electrical Resistance on the basis of Inverse of Conductance Quantum as well as the Standard of Voltage based on the Josephson junctions array is considered. For this purpose are involved the Standard of electrical resistance on the basis of Inverse of Conductance Quantum as well as the Standard of voltage based on the Josephson junctions that can produce voltage pulses with time-integrated areas perfectly quantized in integer values of h/2e. As mentioned resistance we propose to study FET construction, namely the CNTFET with built-in CNT which has to be superconductive. Source and drain have to be manufactured from two dissimilar conductive metals (for example constantan and copper) that constitute the T-type thermocouple via CNT quasi-junction. The last is inherent in resistance Kl 2R he= which is equal to 25812.807 557 ± 0.0040 Ώ, due to transient resistance of contacts. While studying the dissipation of electric power on such an electric resistance in temperature measurement area, it becomes able the estimation of temperature jump conjugated with I Net= which is formed per unit time t by N conduction electrons of each charge e that transfer energy 32 kT to atoms of matter. Resulting value of temperature jump is deduced, and it is reduced later to single electron-phonon dissipation per second. Received value is identified as Reduced Quantum Unit of Temperature: 1 . [ ]12 1 .3 . t sN BT h K sk s D ®®D = é ù × êë úû. On condition of power supply from Johnston junctions array, it appears an opportunity to pass a discrete, clearly appointed number of electrons through Standard’s CNT. The studied temperature jump is easiest to measure with minimal methodical error with help of built-in high-mentioned thermocouple. It is determined by electric energy dissipated on CNTFET contacts at passing a current, via ratio of h and kB and is equal to 3.199 493 42 ∙ 10-11 K with relative standard uncertainty 59.2∙10-8 (defined by well-known values h and kB of NIST tables). It can be extremely helpful at Quantum Temperature Measurement Standard design.


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