: pp.38-45
Lviv Polytechnic National University, Ukraine
Lviv State University of Life Safety

 In the article, both the test method features and the test results of research of thermal behavior of steel fragment were analyzed. Two types of test conditions for steel construction material were considered. The definition and main features of measurement techniques were presented. Fire retardant material test results for steel plates with hydrogen combustion shown the limit of fire resistance of the tested samples is more than 30 min. The main advantages and disadvantages of the test were determined. The positive and negative aspects of this approach were analyzed. These techniques' effective thermal condition is in an environment of uncertainty and has no limited resources was established. Concepts and principles for establishing validity, and frameworks and methods for validating test methods and their results are important elements of safety systems. The article considers the safety of the technical component of a complex organizational and technical system with the study of the functional relationship between the safety elements parameters: temperature, time, fire retardant – by hydrogen participation.

[1] Ritsu Dobashi, “Fire and explosion disasters occurred due to the Great East Japan Earthquake (March 11, 2011)”, Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, Volume 31, p.121-126, 2014.

[2] Investigation of the causes of accidents/ malfunctions of turbogenerators, 2011. [Online]. Available:

[3] P.Stoliarchuk, Y.Rudyk, “Fire hazard assessment of electrical installations contact connections transient resistance increase” Bulletin of the National University “Lviv Polytechnic”. no.665 Automation, measurement and control, p.101–107, 2010.

[4] A. Subota, “Fire resistance of bearing steel constructions of machine halls of nuclear power plants under conditions of emergency combustion of hydrogen: dis. candidate techn. sciences: 21.06.02 – Lviv: LDUBZhD, 168p. 2014.

[5] R. A. Leishear, “The Autoignition of Nuclear Reactor Power Plant Explosions.” ASME. ASME J of Nuclear Rad Sci. January 2020; 6(1): 014001.

[6] R.A. Leishear, “Nuclear Power Plant Fires and Explosions: Part I – Plant Designs and Hydrogen Ignition.” Proceedings of the ASME 2017 Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference. Volume 4: Fluid-Structure Interaction. Waikoloa, Hawaii, USA, 2017.

[7] Vinny Gupta, Juan P. Hidalgo, Adam Cowlard, Cecilia Abecassis-Empis, Agustin H. Majdalani, Cristian Maluk, José L. Torero, “Ventilation effects on the thermal characteristics of fire spread modes in open-plan compartment fires”, Fire Safety Journal, Volume 120, 2021, 103072.

[8] A.H,Arastu, E.Tom, “Transient Analysis of Fire Protection System at a Nuclear Power Plant Using Computer Code USLAM.” Proceedings of the 2018 26th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering. Volume 2: Plant Systems, Structures, Components, and Materials; Risk Assessments and Management. London, England. 2018.

[9] Y.Rudyk, V.Shunkin, “Determination of the quantity of combustible material in cable products in the process of fire safety testing”. Fire Safety, (34), p.78-83. 2019.

[10] Fire Hazard Comparison of Fire-Retarded and Non-Fire-Retarded Products, NBS Special Publication 749, Measuring equipment and metrology. Vol. 82, No. 2, 2021 45 U.S. Commerce Dept. National Bureau of Standards (NBS), retrieved 30 May 2014.

[11] V. Babrauskas, S. J. Grayson, eds., Heat Release in Fires, Interscience Communications Ltd, London (1992; reprinted 2009). xii, 623pages.

[12] V. Babrauskas, Fire Science Applications to Fire Investigations, Interscience Communications Ltd, London, 2014.

[13] L.A. Hollingbery, T.R. Hull “The Fire Retardant Effects of Huntite in Natural Mixtures with Hydromagnesite”. Polymer Degradation and Stability. 97 (4): 504–512. 2012.

[14] L.A,Hollingbery, T.R. Hull “The Thermal Decomposition of Natural Mixtures of Huntite and Hydromagnesite”. Thermochimica Acta. 2012 528: 45–52.

[15] T.R. Hull, A.Witkowski, L.A. Hollingbery, “Fire Retardant Action of Mineral Fillers”. Polymer Degradation and Stability. 96 (8): 1462–1469. 2011.

[16] I. van der Veen, J. de Boer, “Phosphorus flame retardants: properties, production, environmental occurrence, toxicity and analysis”. Chemosphere. 88 (10): 1119–1153. 2012.

[17] E.D.Weil, S.V. Levchik, “Flame Retardants for Plastics and Textiles: Practical Applications”. Munich: Carl Hanser Verlag. p. 97. 2015.

[18] Yu.A. Koshmarov, S.V. Puzach “Calculation of heat and mass transfer during depressurization of a hydride hydrogen accumulator in a room during a fire” Organizational and scientific and technical support of the state fire service, Research Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation, p. 44-56. 1998.

[19] R. M. Tatsii, O. Y. Pazen, S. Y. Vovk. “Modeling of the heat transfer process taking into account bursting expansion of fire-retardant coating”. Scientific Bulletin of the National Mining University, no. 1: 36-40, 2020.

[20] O.Menshykova, T.Rak, Y.Rudyk, “Expanding of compliance assessment for preventive measures of fire safety as a local facilities with high risk level in Ukraine”, Przedsiębiorczość I Zarządzanie T. XIX-1-3, p. 181–194. 2018.

[21] A.Rae, R.Alexander, J.McDermid, “Fixing the cracks in the crystal ball: a maturity model for quantitative risk assessment”. Reliab. Eng. Syst. Saf. 125, 67–81. 2014.

[22] M. M.Semerak, R. M. Tatsij, O. Y. Pazen. “Thermal insulating ability of multi-layer building structures taking into account the destruction of an arbitrary layer” The Bulletin of the Kokshetau Technical Institute of the Ministry of Emergency Situations of the Republic of Kazakhstan 4 2015.

[23] M.Kloos, J.Peschke, “Improved modeling and assessment of the performance of firefighting means in the frame of a fire PSA”. Science and Technology of Nuclear Installations, 2015.

[24] R.M.Tatsii, O.Y. Pazen, “General Boundary-Value Problems for the Heat Conduction Equation with PiecewiseContinuous Coefficients”. J Eng Phys Thermophy 89, 357– 368, 2016.

[25] Y.Rudyk, T.Yuzkiv, Y. Yuzkiv, “Determining fire resistance limit of electric networks”. Fire Safety, 21, p.148- 153, 2012.

[26] M. Mykyychuk, Yu. Yatsuk, O. Ivakhiv, R. Matviiv, “Voltage and Resistance Calibrators for Verification of Industrial Instrument Applications”, in Proc. Metrol. Com. of Katowice branch of Pol. Acad. Sciences. Series: Conf. no. 21, 12th Conference “Problems and Progress in Metrology”, Szczyrk, Poland, 2016, pp.114-117.

[27] F. Goerlandt, N. Khakzad, G. Reniers, “Validity and validation of safety-related quantitative risk analysis: A review”, Safety Science, V. 99, Part B, p. 127-139, 2017.

[28] ISO/IEC Guide 98-6:2021 Uncertainty of measurement — Part 6: Developing and using measurement models.