Electromagnetic earthquake precursory signatures in the ULF RANGE: perspectives of the studies

Received: March 17, 2021
Baku State University, Baku, Azerbaijan

Interest in research on the detection of earthquake (EQ) precursors is growing year by year. In this direction, the paper analysed the results of earlier studies, as well as positive results of some studies conducted in the last 5 years. In particular, during the study of EQs, ultra-low frequency (ULF) precursors attract special attention. The study compared the results of electromagnetic (EM) monitoring studies conducted in the ULF range in earlier years and the results of EM monitoring studies conducted in the last 5 years have been compared. The positive results of the researchers investigating the changes in the EM field before the EQ in the ULF range were reviewed. Thus, ULF anomalies from relatively weak (with 4<Mw<5) and shallow (with a depth of less than 50 km) EQs were repeatedly observed in 2017 in Indonesia. Before strong EQs, ULF promising EQ precursors were revealed. High ULF amplitude anomalies were recorded before the 2011 Tohoku megaEQ. Anomalous changes of the Earth's induction vector were identified in 6 observatories in Japan. Similar anomalies were also recorded in the ULF range (0.001-0.083 Hz) by the Teoloyucan (Mexico) and Tucson (the United States) geomagnetic observatories from August 1 to September 16, 2017, before the Chiapas EQ in Mexico with a magnitude 8.1. On the whole, the research discovered several dozen EM precursors of EQs with different amplitude, spectral and time parameters. The study was based on the analysis of numerous data for the periods 1976-2010 and 2007-2016 conducted by various researchers. In addition, an original approach is proposed. It consists in the study of geoelectric field changes (ULF precursors of EQs) as they are more sensitive. Processing and interpreting these changes can lead to precise detection of EQ precursors. Thus, this makes it possible to identify geodynamic active zones in which an EQ may occur.

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