Geodynamic aspects of hydrocarbon deposit formation in carbonate complex of lower carbon of the Dnieper-Donetsk basin and peculiarity of their forecasting and industrial development

Institute of geology and geochemistry of combustible minerals of National Ukrainian Academy of Sciences


The purpose of the research is to analyze the impact of the region's geodynamics on the formation of hydrocarbon reservoirs in the carbonate Lower Visean-Tournaisian stratum. The paper is focused on the substantiation of hydrocarbon traps within the Machukhy-Tyshchenky area of the southern zone of the Dnieper-Donets basin, as well as oil and gas exploratory drilling and new effective methods of stimulating gas inflows to boreholes. Methodology. The study applies the stratigraphic, lithological, tectonic, paleotectonic methods of studying geology and oil potential, as well as the method of geological analogies. Results. Gas-bearing carbonate rocks of the Early Visean-Tournaisian age in the Machuhy-Tyshchenky area have been studied. A comparison with other oil and gas regions has shown that they are the domes of carbonate platforms (Wаulsoгtiаn facies). Three echelons of bioherm limestones have been identified within the the area. The research helped to describe the stages of their formation and determine the dependence of reservoir properties of limestones on their biofacial types. The role of tectonic fracture in the formation of reservoir rocks is shown. As a rule, tectonic fractures are cemented by calcite under the action of formation waters. An assumption is made about the formation of microfractures in dense limestones due to the action of plumectonic. It consists in the intrusion of high-energy fluids from the depths of the earth, the natural fluid fracturing of rocks and the formation of non-anticlinal hydrocarbon accumulations in them. Probable places of fluid breakthrough may be zones of deep faults: the Ingulets-Kryvorizhzhya-Krupetsk fault zone crosses Machuhy-Tyshchenky area. Filling microfractures with hydrocarbons prevents their cementation. The paper gives examples of microfracturing in the cores of boreholes and establishes reduced core from microfracture intervals. To identify microfracturing intervals in carbonate rocks, it is proposed to use information on the reduction of core, as well as the speed drilling of rocks. The study suggests using multistage hydrofracturing and acid hydrofracturing in order to stabilize and increase gas influxes from carbonate reservoirs to the boreholes. Such technology should provide the connection between the borehole and oil-saturated reservoirs. Probable factors of negative impact on the environment during hydrofracturing have been identified. Originality. Adiabatic microfracturing of dense lithotypes of rocks is possible at considerable depths, in addition to tectonic fracturing. It is due to natural fluid fracturing of sedimentary strata by  hydrocarbon gases. This gives hope for the discovery of new types of hydrocarbon deposits that are not associated with anticline traps. Practical significance. Geophysical surveys and the location of six boreholes are recommended in order to search for hydrocarbon deposits in the Machuhy-Tyshchenky area. The study suggests effective methods for increasing gas influxes to boreholes from low-permeability carbonate rocks.

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