The article deals with the main historical stages of the formation of views on the checks and balances system. Taking into account the main historical stages of the development of ideas concerning the functioning of the checks and balances system, on the basis of the historical and comparative methods, the main features of understanding the separation of powers and functioning of the checks and balances system under the specific conditions of political and legal thought development are emphasized.
The periodization of the relevant ideas and views development in world history, including the pre-classical stage, the classical stage, the stage of legal enforcement and implementation, the stage of changing political doctrines and the modern stage is proposed. It was emphasized that the era of Antiquity laid down the basic principles of justifying the idea of forming the government and dividing the powers between the branches of government. Special attention was paid to the development of the views of the Enlightenment Age thinkers in relation to this issue and their impact on the modern interpretation of the system of checks and balances. With the help of document analysis method, the beginning of the legislative consolidation of the system of checks and balances in the first constitutions and other normative legal acts of the end of the eighteenth century is shown.
Based on the system method, the system of checks and balances is proved to be a basic guarantee of democratic functioning of branches of power and is capable of realizing itself in the conditions of a republican form of government. The special features of the checks and balances system in the practice of modern democracies are described.
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