The authors analyze two influential philosophical and anthropological positions presented by Descartes and Pascal in the context of the acute problems of contemporary philosophical anthropology. In the article the authors argue that the existence of fundamental differences in the anthropological ideas of the two founders of the modern philosophy and express the belief that these ideas lead to the better understanding the essence of the contemporary anthropological crisis and the possible ways of comprehending of modern trends in the transformation of a human being into a post human being. Descartes’ mechanism and reductionism appear as one of the grounds for justifying the influence over a human being through the modifications of his or her body, therefore, his position is connected with the ideas of a post-humanity and can be considered as an element of the basic ideology for these ideas.
Pascal, on the contrary, demonstrates that a human being is a complex being, inscribed in the cosmic whole and in connection with the transcendent; therefore, his ideas resist reduction and contradict tendencies of the movement of modern mankind to the post-humanity. According to the authors, ideological shifts in modern anthropology in the direction of increasing the role of nature in a human being require increased attention to the study of the sources of a human person and a human self. In this context, attention to the philosophical and anthropological ideas of Pascal presents as an important condition for understanding the contemporary anthropological crisis and finding ways to overcome it.
The authors use methods of comparative studies, phenomenology, historical and philosophical analysis. Prospects for further study of the topic are related to in-depth study and understanding of the human organism’s ties with spiritual phenomena and processes.
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