# Game Self-organization of Hamiltonian Cycle of the Graph

2021;
: pp. 13 - 32
1
Lviv Polytechnic National University, Information Systems and Networks Department
2
Lviv Politechnik National University
3
Lviv Polytechnic National University, Ukraine

This paper proposes a new application of the stochastic game model to solve the problem of self- organization of the Hamiltonian cycle of a graph. To do this, at the vertices of the undirected graph are placed game agents, whose pure strategies are options for choosing one of the incident edges. A random selection of strategies by all agents forms a set of local paths that begin at each vertex of the graph. Current player payments are defined as loss functions that depend on the strategies of neighboring players that control adjacent vertices of the graph. These functions are formed from a penalty for the choice of opposing strategies by neighboring players and a penalty for strategies that have reduced the length of the local path.

Random selection of players’ pure strategies is aimed at minimizing their average loss functions. The generation of sequences of pure strategies is performed by a discrete distribution built on the basis of dynamic vectors of mixed strategies. The elements of the vectors of mixed strategies are the probabilities of choosing the appropriate pure strategies that adaptively take into account the values of current losses.

The formation of vectors of mixed strategies is determined by the Markov recurrent method, for the construction of which the gradient method of stochastic approximation is used. During the game, the method increases the value of the probabilities of choosing those pure strategies that lead to a decrease in the functions of average losses. For given methods of forming current payments, the result of the stochastic game is the formation of patterns of self-organization in the form of cyclically oriented strategies of game agents. The conditions of convergence of the recurrent method to collectively optimal solutions are ensured by observance of the fundamental conditions of stochastic approximation.

The game task is extended to random graphs. To do this, the vertices are assigned the probabilities of recovery failures, which cause a change in the structure of the graph at each step of the game. Realizations of a random graph are adaptively taken into account when searching for Hamiltonian cycles. Increasing the probability of failure slows down the convergence of the stochastic game.

Computer simulation of the stochastic game provided patterns of self-organization of agents’ strategies in the form of several local cycles or a global Hamiltonian cycle of the graph, depending on the ways of forming the current losses of players. The reliability of experimental studies is confirmed by the repetition of implementations of self-organization patterns for different sequences of random variables.

The results of the study can be used in practice for game-solving NP-complex problems, transport and communication problems, for building authentication protocols in distributed information systems, for collective decision-making in conditions of uncertainty.

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