This paper represents a list of widely known issues of risk implementation related to specific negative scenarios of software use. The core selection criteria were an opportunity to identify impact areas that led to the core losses for each case. Main preconditions, course of events and consequences are highlighted. In addition, it is explicitly defined which negative scenario was ignored or missed and how it led to the damage.
This article is aside from the classical definition of ’bug’, but focusing on negative use cases (negative scenarios) ignored or mistreated during requirement engineering, development, and testing. By stating a bug modern software development usually, means a mistake in source code or misalignment of settings between program components. Meanwhile, a negative scenario means something able to be performed using normally operating software. Negative scenario is something average user typically not do. However, basing on experience or logic analysis we can assume negative scenarios able to appear, list them, evaluate possible consequences and enhance the software in a manner preventing scenario execution or consequences. As the study shows, that all listed negative scenarios are typical from the general software development or domain point of view. So all listed consequences were able to be mitigated or avoided at all.
All these issues are equipped with a numerical value of economical losses defined based on studies’ data or reports given by different authorities in regards to these cases. All cases belong to different domains, it helps to highlight areas of modern business able to cause similar losses in case if negative scenarios take place.
All this data proves the necessity of negative scenarios mitigation during software development. The given examples explicitly show that high impact may take place in various domains. What makes negative use cases a common problem for a variety of applications in the international and domestic economy. However, in some cases possible impact may appear not explicitly and obviously enough. From such a perspective, it is very important to collect, classify and evaluate cases related to negative use cases implementation to provide information important for further development.
The study shows the referring field for risk managers, project managers and all risk assessment professionals. It provides examples of negative software use cases appearing and causing damage in an area this software is used in. This referring field should help software development specialists to take a proper decision regarding negative scenarios risks arising. Also, this paper emphasizes the extremely powerful impact of negative scenarios on software related to exchanges, which creates an additional area for perspective research.
1. Kuzmin O. (2011) Ekonomichne otsinyuvannya ta planuvannya ryzyku novovvedenʹ na pidpryyemstvakh mashynobuduvannya: monohrafiya [Economic evaluation and risk planning of innovations at machine-building enterprises: monograph], Lviv, Raster-7 Publishing House (in Ukrainian)
2.Troy Gallagher THERAC-25 Computerized Radiation Therapy. The Monash University. Retrieved from: https://web.archive.org/web/20071212183729/http://neptune.netcomp.monash... uguelph_ca_~tgallagh_~tgallagh.html
3. Kimberley Chong The Therac-25 Incident University of Batch. Retrieved from: http://people.bath.ac.uk/klzc20/CM50121cw1.pdf
4. Douglas N. Arnold The Patriot Missile Failuret. University of Minnesota. Retrieved from: http://www- users.math.umn.edu/~arnold//disasters/patriot.html
5. Darren Dalcher (1999) "Disaster in London. The LAS case study". Engineering of Computer-Based Systems. Nashville, TN, USA. Retrieved from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/3792694_Disaster_in_London_The_...
6. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved from: https://en.wikipedia.org
7. Manina L., Bondar-Pidhursʹka O. (2017) Fenomen "vartistʹ zhyttya lyudyny" v konteksti staloho sotsialʹno oriyentovanoho rozvytku ekonomiky. ["Phenomenon of life value" in the context of sustainable socially oriented economic development.]. Retrieved from http://188.8.131.52/bitstream/123456789/6354/1/%D0%9A%D1%80%D1%83%D0%B3... (in Ukrainian)
8. Barbara Wade Rose (1994) Fatal Dose. Radiation Deaths linked to AECL Computer Errors. Canadian Coalition for Nuclear Responsibility, Retrieved from http://www.ccnr.org/fatal_dose.html
9. David Martin, David Argue (1996) The Economic Costs of the Canadian Nuclear Industry. Canadian Coalition for Nuclear Responsibility. Retrieved from http://www.ccnr.org/sunset_table.html#E&Y
10. Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on Investigations and Oversight, Committee on Science, Space, and Technology, House of Representatives. PATRIOT MISSILE DEFENSE. Software Problem Led to System Failure at Dhahran, Saudi Arabia / Washington, D.C.: United States General Accounting Office, 1992
11. Military.com (2019) Death Gratuity. Retrieved from: https://www.military.com/benefits/survivor- benefits/death-gratuity.html
12. Yahoo Finance. Retrieved from: https://finance.yahoo.com
13. Report of the Inquiry Into The London Ambulance Service. South West Thames Regional Health Authority: London, United Kingdom. Retrieved from: http://www0.cs.ucl.ac.uk/staff/A.Finkelstein/las/lascase0.9.pdf
14. The Secretary of State for Health Report to the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Virginia Bottomley. London, United Kingdom. Retrieved from: https://publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm199293/cmhansrd/1992-10- 28/Debate-1.html
15. Class Action / Northern District of California United States District Court / Maureen Thompson, an individual, on behalf of herself and all others similarly situated v. T-MOBILE USA, INC., DANGER, INC., and MICROSOFT CORPORATION: San Francisco, USA 2009. Retrieved from https://web.archive.org/web/20091024183301/http://www.prnewschannel.com/...
16. Macrotrends. Retrieved from www.macrotrends.net
17. Report In the Matter of Knight Capital Americas LLC Respondent, File No. 3-15570 U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission: Washington, D.C., USA. Retrieved from https://www.sec.gov/litigation/admin/2013/34- 70694.pdf
18. Report "01-Aug-2012 ~ Knightmare on Wall Street" Nanex, LLC: Winnetka, Illinois, USA. Retrieved from: http://www.nanex.net/aqck2/3522.html
19. John McCrank (2012) Knight Capital posts $389.9 million loss on trading glitch. The Reuters. Retrieved from: https://www.reuters.com/article/us-knightcapital-results/knight-capital-... glitch-idUSBRE89G0HI20121017
20. SEC Report. Retrieved from https://sec.report/