In this paper considered spectrum mobility techniques for cognitive radio that based on spectrum sensing. The technology of cognitive radio allows the secondary unlicensed cognitive users to use the spectrum when it is not occupied by the primary users. Due to the randomness of the appearance of primary users, disruptions to both licensed and unlicensed communications are difficult to prevent, so may lead to a low capacity of both licensed and unlicensed communications. Whenever a primary user wants to use a channel which is occupied by a cognitive user, the cognitive user should start a proactive spectrum handoff to another channel and vacate the selected channel before the primary user utilizes it. In the proposed framework, channel switching policies and a proactive spectrum handoff protocol are proposed to let cognitive users use a channel before a primary user occupy it to avoid unwanted interference. Network coordination techniques for cognitive users are also included into the spectrum handoff protocol design to realize channel collision. Moreover, a distributed channel selection method to exclude collisions among cognitive users in a multi-user spectrum handoff scenario is proposed.
The simulation model works accordingly to the next scheme. First compared the capacity of proposed proactive spectrum handoff scheme with the reactive spectrum handoff approach. In the reactive spectrum handoff approach, secondary users transmit a packet without predicting the availability of the current channel at the moment when a frame ends. Capacity is not very obvious when both SU and PU traffic are light differences between the proactive spectrum handoff scheme and the reactive spectrum handoff scheme. However, when the cognitive user and primary user packets intensity are high, the proactive spectrum handoff scheme outperforms the reactive scheme in terms of 25 % higher capacity. Next compared collision rate of proposed proactive spectrum handoff scheme with the reactive spectrum handoff approach. Proactive spectrum handoff always shows better performance than reactive spectrum handoff in terms of highest capacity and lower collision rate.
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