As raw materials in bioenergy can be used agricultural residues formed in the process of harvesting crops and the process of their processing, in particular straw cereals, legumes, corn and sunflower seeds, etc. For energy needs, agricultural biomass is used by burning or processing into solid, liquid, or gaseous fuels. In the production of gaseous fuel in special plants - bioreactors, agricultural waste is formed not only as a source of energy - biogas, but also as excellent fertilizers.
One of the areas of waste disposal of fermentation industries is anaerobic fermentation and biogas production, which becomes increasingly attractive for researchers not only because of the global energy crisis but also the environmental one. Biogas production is based on methane fermentation fundamentally different from other types of fermentation, which creates certain difficulties in its implementation on a large scale.
The issue of industrial water treatment and food waste disposal is particularly relevant, especially for the alcohol industry. The problem of wastewater treatment and waste accumulation in the process of alcohol production is due to high chemical and biological oxygen demand, specific colour and odour, a large number of suspended substances, low pH. Therefore, the choice of promising wastewater treatment technologies is of paramount importance to ensure the ecological safety of the environment.
One of the most promising components of Ukraine's renewable energy is bioenergy. It is based on the use of biomass, which is the raw material for the production of solid, liquid and gaseous fuels. Biomass includes agricultural waste and residues, wood waste in the forestry, woodworking and pulp and paper industries, energy crops, organic part of industrial and household waste. Ukraine possesses large areas of land resources, has favorable soil and climatic conditions and developed agriculture, so it can successfully develop bioenergy based on plant biomass.
The organic waste was evaluated to be used for the biogas production in compliance with an acute need to reduce the consumption of traditional energy resources. The possibility of using organic waste (corn, straw, branches, fallen leaves, potato peelings) for the biogas production was experimentally confirmed. The influence of the initial fractions size and the temperature on the biogas yield has been studied. The yield of biogas produced from potato peelings was found to be the highest one.
Rational form of reservoir was set and the typical number of household biogas plants was presented. The analysis of different types of thermal insulation to reduce the heat loading on the heating system of bioreactor was carried out. The amount of thermal energy flowing into the tank from the solar radiation was defined. The results are presented in graphic and empirical form.
This article describes the results of the technical and economic calculations and analysis of the economic efficiency of the project of reconstruction of waste water treatment plant. Lviv and construction of biogas plants for the production of electricity and thermal energy from sludge and excess activated sludge resulting from waste water treatment. The main elements of the technological scheme of biogas is methane tanks, and electrical and thermal energy – cogeneration units.
The article discusses the results of studies of the methane production from cyan biomass based on the data obtained in the course of a laboratory experiments. The yield of biogas was calculated from the substrate per unit volume, and its energy properties were determined. Experimental data indicates the feasibility and economic viability of this biotechnology.
We have analyzed the ecological hazard that has emerged as a result of the construction of hydropower plants on the Dnieper, which became the cause of uncontrolled development of cyanobacteria. The environmental risks that are caused by the uncontrolled development of cyanobacteria and their biodegradability were studied. The efficiency of application of the known methods of suppression of mass development of the blue-green algae was analyzed. The amount of biogas that can be synthesized from cyanobacteria biomass of Kremenchug reservoir was estimated.
Topical and important issue is the national problem of introduction of biomethane production and the Ukrainian gas transportation system. This problem can be addressed through the use of information technology based on the monitoring and forecasting the prospective base of knowledge organic raw materials and optimal scheduling of seeding, harvesting and conversion of crops and other organic waste into biogas energy.