The directions of energy and resource saving remain a priority in building science. This is especially concerns to the structural elements of mass production. These elements include large concrete blocks of basement walls (foundation blocks), theirs bearing capacity, even in high-rise building, is used only for 30–50 %. Therefore, starting with the widespread establishment in construction, various ways to improve their constructive forms were proposed to reduce their own weight and optimization. One of the most effective ways is cavity formation. In Lviv Polytechnic National University a number of constructive solutions for effective blocks of basements walls with open cavities and with arbolit inserts were developed. Their testing confirmed a considerable strength. For low-rise and medium-rise construction they have an excessive margin of safety and can be manufactured even less materially. For justification opportunities of even more optimization the additional experimental and theoretical studies were carried out, including on small-size models of concrete blocks. The article presents the results of experimental studies of small concrete hollow blocks with open top cavities of two standard sizes, which were tested separately and as constituent
elements of a wall fragment. According to the received results, the work in the wall is more complex, with larger deformations, earlier cracks formation and less resistibility Exept this the work of experimental samples was simulated in the FEMAP and LIRA software systems. This modeling confirmed, in principle, the qualitative and quantitative regularity of change in the strain-stress distribution and bearing capacity of concrete hollow blocks with their vertical loading and criteria for structural evaluation.

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