The institution of democratic elections in Ukraine: characteristic features and transformations

2015;
: pp.1-6
Received: September 04, 2015
Accepted: October 12, 2015
Authors: 
Mykola Buchyn

Lviv Polytechnic National University

The article dwells on the issue of compliance with democratic principles during elections in Ukraine. The author suggests the methodology for calculation of the level of election process democracy based on such an indicator as the Index of Democratic Elections. It is founded on democratic principles of elections, full compliance with which testifies the highest possible level of election process democracy. Each democratic principle includes a certain number of indicators which, in their turn, include constituents. They are assigned a particular sum of maximum possible scores depending on their influence on the level of elections democracy. The Index of Democratic Elections is a relative value calculated as correlation between democracy of a specific election campaign and the ideal model of democratic elections. The Index of Democratic Elections comprises the analysis of both the level of electoral legislation democracy and the study of electoral practice concerning compliance with democratic principles. In the first case, the regulatory acts of Ukraine which have been regulating conduction of elections in our country since 1990 served as sources for the research. In the second case, reports of the OSCE/ODIHR Election Observation Mission were taken as empirical material for the analysis. Upon applying of the suggested methodology in determining the level of elections democracy in independent Ukraine, the following results have been obtained: since the declaration of independence, the Index of Democratic Elections declined, and the pick of this process was the Presidential elections in 2004; short-term increase of this process was observed after the Orange Revolution; when V. Yanukovych took over the power in 2010, the Index of Democratic Elections tended to decrease; after the Revolution of Dignity, significant increase of the level of elections democracy is observed, and this provides a chance for democratization of social order in Ukraine at large.

1. Vybory do Verkhovnoi Rady Ukrainy 26 bereznia 2006 r.: Zvit Misii OBSIe/BDIPL zi sposterezhennia za vyboramy. – Rezhym dostupu: http://www.osce.org/odihr/elections/ukraine; 2. Vybory do Verkhovnoi Rady Ukrainy 28 zhovtnia 2012 r.: Ostatochnyi zvit Misii zi sposterezhennia za vyboramy OBSIe/BDIPL. – Rezhym dostupu: http://www.osce.org/ odihr/elections/ukraine; 3. Vybory Prezydenta Ukrainy 17 sichnia ta 7 liutoho 2010 r.: Ostatochnyi zvit Misii OBSIe/BDIPL zi sposterezhennia za vyboramy. – Rezhym dostupu: http://www.osce.org/odihr/elections/ukraine; 4. Vybory Prezydenta Ukrainy 31 zhovtnia, 21 lystopada ta 26 hrudnia 2004 r.: Zakliuchnyi zvit Misii OBSIe/BDIPL zi sposterezhennia za vyboramy // Vybory ta demokratiia. – 2005. – № 2 (4). – S. 46-94; 5. Zakon “Po vybory narodnykh deputativ Ukrainskoi RSR” vid 27 zhovtnia 1989 r. – Rezhym dostupu: http://www.zakon1.rada.gov.ua/cgi-bin/laws/ main.cgi?nreg=8304-11; 6. Zakon Ukrainy “Pro vybory narodnykh deputativ Ukrainy” vid 18 zhovtnia 2001 r. // Vidomosti Verkhovnoi Rady. – 2001. – № 51–52. – S. 1058–1112; 7. Zakon Ukrainy «Pro vybory narodnykh deputativ Ukrainy» vid 17 lystopada 2011 r. – Rezhym dostupu: http://www.zakon4.rada.gov.ua/laws/ show/4061-17; 8. Zakon Ukrainy “Pro vybory narodnykh deputativ Ukrainy” vid 18 lystopada 1993 r. // Vidomosti Verkhovnoi Rady. – 1993. – № 48. – S. 1099–1122; 9. Zakon Ukrainy “Pro vybory narodnykh deputativ Ukrainy” vid 24 veresnia 1997 r. // Vidomosti Verkhovnoi Rady. – 1997. – № 43. – S. 787–822; 10¸Zakon Ukrainy “Pro vybory Prezydenta Ukrainy” vid 5 bereznia 1999 r. // Vidomosti Verkhovnoi Rady. – 1999. – № 14. – S. 274–304; 11. Zakon Ukrainy “Pro vybory Prezydenta Ukrainy” vid 5 lypnia 1991 r. – Rezhym dostupu: http://www.zakon1.rada.gov.ua/cgi-bin/laws/main.cgi?nreg= 1297-12; 12. Zakon Ukrainy “Pro vybory Prezydenta Ukrainy” vid 18 bereznia 2004 r. – K.: Parlamentske vydavnytstvo, 2004. – 129 s.; 13. Zakon Ukrainy “Pro vybory Prezydenta Ukrainy” vid 24 liutoho 1994 r. // Vidomosti Verkhovnoi Rady. – 1994. – № 8. – S. 200–220; 14. Zakon Ukrainy “Pro vnesennia zmin do Zakonu Ukrainy “Pro vybory narodnykh deputativ Ukrainy” vid 7 lypnia 2005 r. // Vidomosti Verkhovnoi Rady. – 2005. – № 38–39. – S. 1454–1574; 15. Zakon Ukrainy “Pro vnesennia zmin do Zakonu Ukrainy “Pro vybory narodnykh deputativ Ukrainy” ta deiakykh inshykh zakonodavchykh aktiv Ukrainy (shchodo poriadku provedennia pozacherhovykh vyboriv do Verkhovnoi Rady Ukrainy ta zamishchennia narodnykh deputativ Ukrainy, povnovazhennia yakykh buly dostrokovo prypyneni)” vid 1 chervnia 2007 r. – Rezhym dostupu: http://www.zakon1.rada. gov.ua/cgi-bin/laws/main.cgi?nreg=1114-16; 16. Zakon Ukrainy «Pro vnesennia zmin do Zakonu Ukrainy «Pro vybory Prezydenta Ukrainy» ta deiakykh inshykh zakonodavchykh aktiv Ukrainy shchodo tekhniko-iurydychnoho vdoskonalennia vyborchoho protsesu» vid 13 bereznia 2014 r. – Rezhym dostupu: http://www.zakon4.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/879-18/paran6#n6; 17. Zakon Ukrainy “Pro osoblyvosti zastosuvannia Zakonu Ukrainy “Pro vybory Prezydenta Ukrainy” pry povtornomu holosuvanni 26 hrudnia 2004 roku” vid 8 hrudnia 2004 r. // Vidomosti Verkhovnoi Rady. – 2004. – № 52. – S. 2076–2087; 18. Parlamentski vybory 31 bereznia 2002 r. v Ukraini: Zakliuchnyi zvit OBSIe/BDIPL. – Rezhym dostupu: http://www.osce.org/odihr/ elections/ukraine; 19. Pozacherhovi vybory do Verkhovnoi rady Ukrainy 30 zhovtnia 2007 r.: Zvit Misii OBSIe/BDIPL zi sposterezhennia za vyboramy. – Rezhym dostupu: http://www.osce.org/odihr/ elections/ukraine; 20. Ukraina. Pozacherhovi vybory narodnykh deputativ Ukrainy 26 zhovtnia 2014 r.: Ostatochnyi zvit misii sposterezhennia za vyboramy OBSIe/BDIPL [Elektronnyi resurs]. – Varshava, 2014. – 64 s. – Rezhym dostupu: http://www.osce.org/uk/odihr/elections/ ukraine/133441?download=true; 21. Ukraina. Pozacherhovi vybory Prezydenta 25 travnia 2014 r.: Ostatochnyi zvit misii sposterezhennia za vyboramy OBSIe/BDIPL [Elektronnyi resurs]. – Varshava, 2014. – 44 s. – Rezhym dostupu: http://www.osce.org/uk/odihr/ elections/ukraine/120961? Download =true; 22. Parliamentary elections 29 March 1998 in Republic of Ukraine: Election observation OSCE/ODIHR. – Access mode: http://www.osce.org/odihr/elections/ ukraine; 23. Presidential elections 31 October and 14 November 1