In the article the relevance of the formation and achievement of competitive advantages of a separate enterprise at the present stage is substantiated. The purpose of the research is to develop a mechanism for applying benchmarking techniques to form the competitive advantages of the enterprise.
The essence of the concept of competitive advantage is considered. The main requirements for the competitive advantages as strategic factors of success are allocated. These requirements are: the competitive advantages should be based on the resources and capabilities of the enterprise, ensuring the uniqueness of the brand over a long period of time, meeting specific customer needs.
The most typical reasons for the innovations that can give competitive advantages to a certain enterprise are given. These include: the changes in the legislation or in the government policy; the emergence of new technologies; new customer requests; the emergence of a new segment of the industry; the changes in the cost of production; the emergence of new production components. The main problems that arise during the formation of competitive advantage on the basis of benchmarking are identified. These problems are: the choice of the base object for comparison — a Leading company within the market; the formation of the evaluation criteria of the competitive advantages of the enterprise; the need to research the internal and external markets.
A sample of the main indicators of competitiveness of the enterprise is carried out. In our opinion, the most significant among them are: the product quality and its price; the profitability of sale, the expenses for 1 UAH of the commodity products; the market share. The method of calculation of the main indicators of competitiveness of the enterprise is given.
The main methods for assessing competitiveness are selected: the methods based on the analysis of comparative advantages (the theories of the international division of labor, the methods of the comparative advantages of M. Porter, the methods of the comparative analysis); the methods based on the theory of equilibrium of the firm and the industry (the theory of equilibrium of the firm and industry, the theory of the factors of production: labor, capital, land, the entrepreneurial abilities); the methods based on the theory of the effective competition (the theory of the effective competition, the methods of the comparative analysis, the index and integral methods); the Matrix methods (the concept of the life cycle of the goods, technologies, markets, the methods of analysis of the competitive advantages: SWOT, GAP, LOTS, PIMS, 111-555, etc.); the methods based on the theory of the goods quality (the theory of the quality of goods, the method of the expert assessments, the radar method); the integral methods, which include an integrated approach that combines the theory of the product quality and the comparative advantages.
The algorithm for estimation ofthe factors of competitive advantage and competitiveness of the enterprise is offered. It is concluded that application of the technique of benchmarking will enable to form a competitive advantage of the enterprise much more effectively.
1. Azoev H. L., Chelenkov A. P. (2000) Konkurentnye preimushchestva firmy [Competitive advantages of the firm]. Moscow: OAO "Tipografiya "NOVOSTI". (in Russian).
2. Alchian A. (2015) Neopredelennost', evolyutsiya i ekonomicheskaya teoriya [Uncertainty, evolution and economic theory] Retrieved from http://www.ecsocman.edu.ru/data/985/692/1219/ section3 istoki.pdf. (accessed 9 May 2019).
3. Andersen B. (2003) Biznes-protsessy. Instrumenty sovershenstvovaniya [Business processes. Improvement tools] Moscow: RIA "Standarty i kachestvo". (in Russian).
4. Verkhoglyadova N. І., Yadrans'kiy D. M., Іvannіkova N. A. (2008). Ekonomіka pіdpryjemstva [Business Economics] Kiev: "Vidavnichniy dіm Profesіonal". (in Ukrainian).
5. Dolzhans'kyj I. Z. (2006) Konkurentospromozhnist' pidpryjemstva [Competitiveness of the enterprise] Kiev: Centr navchal'noi' literatury. (in Ukrainian).
6. Druker P. (1994) Jak zabezpechyty uspih u biznesi: novatorstvo i pidpryjemnyctvo [How to ensure business success: innovation and entrepreneurship] Per. s angl. V. S. Gulja. Kiev: Ukrai'na, (in Ukrainian).
7. Ivanov Ju. B., Orlov P. A., Ivanova O. Ju. (2008). Konkurentni perevagy pidpryjemstva: ocinka, formuvannja ta rozvytok: monografija [Competitive advantages of the enterprise: evaluation, formation and development]. Kharkiv: INZhEK. (in Ukrainian).
8. Kyrcner Yzrael M. (2001) Konkurencyja y predprynymatel'stvo [Competition and entrepreneurship] Perevod s angl. dokt. ekon. nauk A. N. Romanova. Moscow: JuNYTY. (in Russian).
9. Lamben Zhan-Zhak. (2004) Menedzhment, orientirovannyj na rynok [Market oriented management] Per. s angl. pod red. V. V. Kolganova. Pyter: SPb. (in Russian).
10. Myhajlyk G. V. (2008). Konkurentni perevagy ta shljahy i'h formuvannja na mashynobudivnyh pidpryjemstvah Ukrai'ny [Competitive relocation and hatches in the form of machinery and equipment in Ukraine] Aktual'ni problemy ekonomiky. [Actual problems of economy] no. 11, pp. 130-136 . (in Ukrainian)
11. Porter M. E. (2001) Konkurentsiya [Competition] Moscow: Izd. Dom "Vil'yams". (in Russian).
12. Khayek F. (2000) Individualizm i ekonomicheskiy poryadok [Individualism and economic order]. Moscow: Izograf. (in Russian).
13. Harchuk T. V. (2016) Pidhody do vyznachennja konkurentnyh perevag pidpryjemstva [Come to the point of competitive competition] Retrieved from http://pk.napks.edu.ua/nbrary//(accessed 11 May 2019). (in Ukrainian)