Lviv Polytechnic National University, Department of Architecture and Conservation

The article analyzes the research and design documentation "Historical and
architectural basic plan of the city of Lviv" (2020) in terms of identification and protection of
fortifications. The analysis of the documentation revealed little attention of the authors to the
study and coverage of the stages of development of the fortification lines of Lviv from the XIII
to the XIX century. This approach has led to the debatable identification of many objects by
their historical, urban and architectural value, inaccurate dating, lack of proposals for their
protection. In particular, the assessment of a complex of fortifications, the so-called "F.
Hetkant's defensive line" from 1635.
The authors of the documentation did not analyze the stages of development and assess
the time-varying urban structure of the quarters, even in the city center. The development of
buildings in the areas of the former suburbs was also not covered in detail. But these are areas 
that have been filled with very important facilities and functions in the past. The nature of the
development of the quarters took different forms depending on the time of the site. The sites
themselves developed abruptly along with the movement of the lines of urban fortifications
further from the city center. The construction of a new, more modern line of fortifications and
its advancement made it possible to intensify construction in areas that were previously outside
the fortified territory. Lviv has gone through six such major stages of urban transformation
associated with the development and modernization of fortifications from the thirteenth to the
nineteenth century. This relationship between the development of fortification systems and the
architectural-spatial and planning structure is the key to understanding the urban history of
the city. Without a detailed reconstruction of the phases of construction of fortifications, it is
impossible to properly navigate the nature of changes in the architectural-compositional and
planning structure of the city.
For example, after the removal of fortifications far beyond the central district of the city,
began active changes and intensification of housing and public buildings in areas of former
suburbs, where previously dominated by large monastic complexes and palaces of wealthy
burghers. The quarters here began to change the character of their urban structure, evolving
from the shape of a quarter with a palace and a garden-park in the suburbs (there were dozens
of them in Lviv in the suburbs) to a densely built-up quarter during the XVIII-XIX centuries.
However, today in the slums of such neighborhoods with their careful study can be found
hidden relics of the original history of the city.
The web of neighborhoods laced with dense lace around the city center also has encoded
individual pages of unique urban history. The historical and architectural reference plan of
the city is a scientific documentation that should reveal all the specific features of different
urban planning formations - including the emergence and development of fortification lines,
changes in hydrography, changes in street planning, changes of the nature of each quarter.
According to the provisions of the State Building Norms for the development of historical and
architectural reference plans (2012) should be performed scientific study, analysis and
classification of immovable cultural heritage of the city by type (archeology, history,
monumental art, architecture, urban planning, landscaping art, natural landscape, science and
technology). This study and analysis should end with the definition of the stages of formation
of each complex. Characteristic features and values of all objects of cultural heritage by types
should be revealed for each city site. Fortifications were a particularly important element in
the development of the city structure in the past. Their complexes had the greatest impact on
the planning structure of the city. Fortifications often dictated the development of the city in
one direction or another. Therefore, the theoretical reconstruction of the stages of development
of urban defense systems is an important task for the historical and architectural reference
Our research was implemented in the framework of the research topic of the Department
of Architecture and Restoration of the National University "Lviv Polytechnic" "Regeneration
of historic architectural and urban complexes" (№ state registration 0116U004110).

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