fortifications

PROGRAMS FOR FORTIFICATION AREA CONSERVATION IN THE NETHERLANDS

The article is aimed at familiarizing readers and specialists with programs for the preservation of fortification territories and methods of using historical landscapes in the Netherlands, the legal aspect of preserving the remains of fortifications and terrain. The project method of integrating the territory into the tourist observation network is considered.

HISTORICAL FORTIFICATIONS IN THE ARCHITECTURAL AND URBAN PLANNING STRUCTURE OF LVIV (ON MARGINES DOCUMENTATION "HISTORICAL AND ARCHITECTURAL REFERENCE PLAN OF LVIV")

Ancient city fortifications are one of the specific types of defensive architecture. Along with the buildings of castles, blocks of urban residential development, monastery complexes and field defensive structures, they formed a special type of architectural and urban planning objects. During their construction, the skills of both an architect, builder, and military engineer were often combined. Not so many objects of urban defense architecture have come down to our time.

GRAPHIC RECONSTRUCTION OF DEFENSE BULWARK OF THE THIRD FORTIFIED SETTLEMENT OF IX - X CENTURIES. IN THE KOROSTEN CITY (ON BASIS OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL DATA)

From ancient times, mankind has tried to protect their settlement from predators and
enemies. This promoted to creation of comfortable living conditions. This contributed to the
emergence of fortified settlements. On the territory that archaeologists associate with the Slavs
tribe Drevlyany, settlements began to appear in the IX century. when the Great Migration of
the Slavs was finally completed. Bohdan Zvizdetsky, researcher of drevlyan՚s antiquity, provided
information about 20 fortified settlements between the Horyn and Teteriv rivers. Such

UNSUCCESSFUL TOWNS OF THE BAR SURROUNDINGS: YALTUSHKIV, MEZHYRIV, POROSIATKIV, MARIANIVKA, BAROK AND BERLYNTSI

Historical towns of Ukraine are the subject of numerous interdisciplinary
studies. The focus is mainly on those settlements that have preserved the planning composition
or have significant historical significance. Instead, towns that have lost opportunities for
spatial development remain unnoticed. The purpose of article is to determine the spatial
parameters of downtown and individual development anomalies of unsuccessful cities:

PRESERVATION OF HISTORICAL FORTIFICATIONS AND VALUABLE URBAN STRUCTURE OF THE CITY (NOTES FOR SCIENTIFIC AND DESIGN DOCUMENTATION - HISTORICAL AND ARCHITECTURAL BASIC PLAN OF LVIV)

The article analyzes the research and design documentation "Historical and
architectural basic plan of the city of Lviv" (2020) in terms of identification and protection of
fortifications. The analysis of the documentation revealed little attention of the authors to the
study and coverage of the stages of development of the fortification lines of Lviv from the XIII
to the XIX century. This approach has led to the debatable identification of many objects by
their historical, urban and architectural value, inaccurate dating, lack of proposals for their

GRAPHIC RECONSTRUCTION OF DEFENSE BULWARK OF THE THIRD FORTIFIED SETTLEMENT OF IX - X CENTURIES. IN THE KOROSTEN CITY (ON BASIS OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL DATA)

From ancient times, mankind has tried to protect their settlement from predators and enemies.
This promoted to creation of comfortable living conditions. This contributed to the emergence of
fortified settlements. On the territory that archaeologists associate with the Slavs tribe Drevlyany,
settlements began to appear in the IX century. when the Great Migration of the Slavs was finally
completed. Bohdan Zvizdetsky, researcher of drevlyan՚s antiquity, provided information about 20

UNSUCCESSFUL TOWNS OF THE BAR SURROUNDINGS: YALTUSHKIV, MEZHYRIV, POROSIATKIV, MARIANIVKA, BAROK AND BERLYNTSI

Historical towns of Ukraine are the subject of numerous interdisciplinary studies. The focus is
mainly on those settlements that have preserved the planning composition or have significant
historical significance. Instead, towns that have lost opportunities for spatial development remain
unnoticed. The purpose of article is to determine the spatial parameters of downtown and individual
development anomalies of unsuccessful cities: Yaltushkiv, Mezhyriv, Porosyatkiv, Maryanivka,
Barok and Berlyntsi.

PRESERVATION OF HISTORICAL FORTIFICATIONS AND VALUABLE URBAN STRUCTURE OF THE CITY OF LVIV (NOTES TO SCIENTIFIC AND DESIGN DOCUMENTATION - HISTORICAL AND ARCHITECTURAL BASIC PLAN)

The article analyzes the research and design documentation "Historical and architectural
basic plan of the city of Lviv" (2020) in terms of identification and protection of fortifications. The
analysis of the documentation revealed little attention of the authors to the study and coverage of the
stages of development of the fortification lines of Lviv from the XIII to the XIX century. This
approach has led to the debatable identification of many objects by their historical, urban and

FORTIFICATION OBIECTS AND STREET NETWORK DEVELOPMENT IN THE HISTORICAL PART OF CHERNIVTSI CITY IN THE 18th-20th CENTURIES

Formation and development of the central part of Chernivtsi is a long historical
process. The settlement, which emerged in the XIV century, underwent major urban
transformations that took place during the XVIII-XX centuries. They became an important
period of creation of the renewed structure plan of the city area which is still in operation. The
historical city centre has been changing its structure, size, functional organization during a long
time. The objective of the research is to study and compare the main parameters and

FORTIFICATIONS OF THE 16th−17th CENTURIES OF THE CASTLE IN YAHILNYTSIA (NAHIRYANKA VILLAGE, CHORTKIV DISTRICT, TERNOPIL REGION)

One of the examples of preserved bastion fortifications on the territory of
Ukraine is the castle in Yahilnytsia. Аt presents on the territory of the castle escarpment is
preserved, which forms the contour of the double tenal front and adjacent half-bastions with
curtains. The aim of the research is to generalize information about the genesis and type of
defensive fortifications of the castle in Yahilnytsia.
Castles in Hust, Halych, Chernihiv (Ukraine) have been chosen as analogues for the