RESTORATION, CHEMICAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL RESEARCH OF STONE SCULPTURE OF ST. YAN NEPOMUTSKY FROM THE VILLAGE OF CHABARIVKA, VASYLKIV DISTRICT, TERNOPIL REGION

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Lviv Polytechnic National University
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Lviv Polytechnic National University
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Lviv Polytechnic National University

The sculptural composition originates from the village of Chabarivka, Vasylkiv district, Ternopil region (since 2015). On the map of 1779-1783 by Friedrich von Mieg, the sculpture of St. John of Nepomuk is marked with a red cross, located in the eastern part of the village stretched along the road, opposite the manor. The road from Kopychyntsi to Husiatyn passed to the north of the settlement.

On the map of the late nineteenth century the figure of St. John of Nepomuk is recorded on the south side of the street, in the eastern part of Chabarivka. Instead, the manor no longer exists, and the existing church does not yet exist. It is probable that in the first half of the 19th century the village community changed the location of the roadside sculptural composition. Since there is a carved coat of arms of Pilava on the stone pedestal of the figure, it is logical to say that the founder of the composition was a representative of the Potocki magnate family. Since the owner of Husiatyn and its environs during 1729-1732 was Stanislav Vladyslav Potocki, we can assume that it was at this time that the sculptural composition of St. John of Nepomuk was made.

As a result of thermal studies, it was found that the samples taken from the surface of the figure and the pedestal contain organic surface contaminants. A sample taken from the surface of the pedestal revealed a significant amount of clay contaminants introduced to the surface of the stone by dust deposits. The results of thermal analysis are confirmed by X-ray fluorescence analysis. In the samples taken from the surface layer of the pedestal and the figure, the presence of elements Si, Al, Mg, K, Fe, which are part of the structure of layered silicates, was detected. The relative content of elements present in the structure of clay minerals is determined by the ratio of the areas of the bands of electronic transitions, which are manifested on the spectrum of samples at the corresponding characteristic energies. Based on these data, it can be argued that the surface layer of the pedestal contains more clay contaminants. Based on chemical and technological research, it can be argued that the surface layer of the pedestal contains more clay contaminants than the sculpture.

Taking into account the results of historical, art and chemical-technological research, a program of restoration of the monument has been developed: Carrying out a visual and field inspection of the work; Execution of photofixation before completion of restoration works; Study of analogues of the image of St. John of Nepomuk; Execution of mechanical clearing; Extraction of salts from the structure of the stone by applying a compress of cellulose and distilled water; Carrying out of structural strengthening of a stone by the KSE300 Remmers preparation; Production of the lost lower part of a plinth from limestone, its installation on stainless steel cores and epoxy glue; Gluing of the reflected and saved parts to a sculpture on proper places. Gluing the saved left hand with epoxy glue; Making a plasticine model of the saint's head according to the proportions and collected analogues. Execution of a lump plaster form and formation of a head from an artificial stone; Mounting the head using a stainless steel anchor and polyester glue; Gradual addition of lost elements on the sculpture and pedestal with mineral restoration solution with the addition of pigments; Modeling of the neck and collar of St. John of Nepomuk with mineral solution; Execution of structural strengthening of a stone by an alcoholic solution of nanovap; Execution of structural strengthening of a stone by the KSE300 Remmers preparation; Coating the monument with a long-acting biocidal solution from Remmers; Double plastering of the monument with a solution of historical translucent azure and water water repellent by Remmers with the addition of pigments for stone tinting; Execution of final photofixation of a monument after the carried-out restoration actions.

Chemical-technological studies confirm what was revealed by visual examination and microscope. During the restoration, a full range of measures was taken to stabilize the material structure of the sculptural composition. Remains of blue and red paints were found during the work. According to the results of X-ray fluorescence analysis, it was found that the staining was done in the XIX century. Instead, the primary staining was not detected. The performed chemical-technological researches have formulated a restoration map, will allow in the following works to define more precisely mineral composition of a stone and the author's color decision of a work of art.

After the completion of the restoration works, the sculptural composition acquired artistic integrity and received a sacred meaning. Similar works of art located on the territory of Ukraine need to be preserved and restored, as they form a valuable cultural landscape of historical settlements.

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