Method for determining the volume Lviv solid waste landfill by using archival mapping materials and UAV Trimble UX-5

: pp. 64-82
Department of Cartography and Geospatial Modeling of Lviv Polytechnic National University
Lviv Polytechnic National University
Department of Higher Geodesy and Astronomy of Lviv Polytechnic National University
Engineering geodesy department of Lviv Polytechnic National University

Purpose. Lviv landfill has some features that should be considered when developing the methodology for determining the volume. The initial relief of severe fragmentation and a height difference of more than 70 meters make it is impossible to set the original horizontal plane for determining the volume. The slope of current garbage body surface ranges from 0 to 85 degrees and a vertical drop is more than 80 m. This leads to significant relief errors in carry out for aerialphotography. The main purpose is development of methodology for determining the volume of Lviv landfill using archival cartographic materials and data of aerialphotography in October 2015 taking into account the features of the object. Methodology and results. Despite the development of modern technologies and digital cartography paper maps are source of information that can be used to solve a number of scientific problems. Obtaining data for determining the volume of landfill is possible through the use of remote and contact methods. The most popular among remote methods are UAV. According to our purpose, we have reproduced the original relief of landfill in 1957. Conducted aerialphotography of Lviv landfill in October 2015 using UAVs TRIMBLE UX-5. Determined volume and area of the Lviv landfill. Experimentally establish that the volume should be determined by TIN models. Because the use of GRID models in increments of 5 cm to 20 m does not enable to accurately determine the volume of Lviv landfill. Conducted accuracy estimation of the volume of Lviv landfill. The results based on geodetic data were compared with weight method data. Scientific novelty and practical significance. The first in Ukraine was determined the volume of existing landfills. Proposed new methodology of determining the volume using UAVs. Also conducted modeling of the initial surface and relief structure of Lviv landfill using archival cartographic materials in 1957. The practical significance of obtained results is the proposed by the author’s methodology that allows operatively determine the parameters of the landfill in accordance with DBN V.2.4-2-2005.

1. Burshtyns'ka Kh. V., Suprun I. Analysis of three-dimensional terrain models, based on different input data Proceedings of the Western Society surveying UTHK "Modern achievements of geodetic science and industry". 2004, no 1, pp. 230–233.
2. Vashchuk O. M., Sobolevs'kyy R. V. Justification the methodology for calculating the volume of warehouses ready product concrete raw material Bulletin ZSTU. 2012, no 4 (63), pp. 174–182.

3. Vovk A., Hlotov V., Hunina A., Malits’kyy А., Tretyak K., Tserklevych A. Analysis of the results of the use UAV Trimble UX-5 for creation of orthophotomaps and digital model of relief. Geodesy, Cartography and Aerial Photography. 2015, Vol. 81, pp. 90–103.

4. Voloshyn P. K., Tsehelyk R. O., Biruk S. V. On research on the environmental and sanitary condition adjacent to the Lviv 'landfill Report of "Geotechnical Institute". Lviv, 2005.
5. Haydin M., Dyakiv V. O., Pohrebennyk V. D., Pashuk A. V. The chemical composition of the filtrate Lviv landfill Nature of the West Polesie and the surrounding areas: Coll. Science. paper. Volyn national university Lesia Ukrayinka ; [Editorial Board: F. V. Zuzuk et al]. Lutsk, 2013, no. 10, pp. 43–50
6. Holets' N. Yu., Mal'ovanyy M. S., Malyk Yu. O. Calculation hazard class filtrate Hrybovytskoho landfill Bulletin of Lviv State University of Life Safety. 2013, no. 7, pp. 219–224.
7. DBN V.2.4-2-2005 landfills main provisions of design.
8. Dvulit Z. P. Analysis of the state in the field of waste management in the Lviv region Theoretical and applied economic issues. 2009, pp. 269–277.
9. Zozulya I. I., Haydin A. M., Dyakiv V. O. Ways of solving the problems of the Lviv landfill Technogenic and ecological safety and civil protection. 2010, Vol. 1, pp. 106–112.

10. Lozynskyi V. А. Analysis of current methods of obtaining data to determine the volumes of waste and sediments. Modern achievements in geodetic science and industry. Lviv, 2015, Vol. 2(30), pp. 87–97.

11. Mal'ovanyy M. S., Holodovs'ka O. Ya., Pasternak M. I. Lviv Municipal solid waste and their impact on the environment Herald of the National University "Lviv Polytechnic". Lviv, 2011, number 700: Chemistry, Technology substances and their use. pp. 250–252.
12. Matveev Yu. B., Pukhnyuk A. Yu. Landfills: situation and prospects Municipal solid waste. Moscow, 2013, no. 6
13. Musyn O. R. Chart Voronoi and Delaunay triangulation Moskov: Meeting of St. Peterburh mathematical society, 1999, 10 p.
14. Order of the Ministry of Construction, Architecture and Housing and Communal Services of Ukraine of 05.04.07 number 121 "Rules of technical operation of solid waste."

15. Petrushka I. M., Popovych O. R., Zhuk H. O. The biogas potential of Lviv landfill Herald of the National University "Lviv Polytechnic". – 2009. – № 644: Chemistry, Materials Technology and their Application. pp. 185-188.

16. State the sphere of waste in Ukraine 2014., 2016.
17. Khromыkh V. V., O. V. Khromыkh. Tsyfrovыe modely rel'efa [Digital terrain models], 2007, 178 p.
18. Ansari A. Use of point cloud with a low-cost UAV system for 3D mapping International Conference on Emerging Trends in Electrical Engineering and Energy Management (ICETEEEM) 2012, pp. 131–134.
19. Bellezza I. Optimisation of landfill volume by the simplex method Engineering Computations. 2014, Volume 21, Iss: 1, pp. 53–65.
20. Coduto D., Huitric R. Monitoring Landfill Movements Using Precise Instruments
21. Dustin M. Monitoring parks with inexpensive UAVs: cost benefits analysisfor monitoring and maintaing parks facilities A Thesis presented to the faculty of the usc graduate school university of SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree master of science (geographic information science and technology), pp. 1–113.
22. Ferrier G., Frostick L., Splajt T. Application of geophysical monitoring techniques as aids to probabilistic risk-based management of landfill sites The Geographical Journal Special Issue: Reconciling Policy, Practice and Theorisations of Waste Management. 2009, Vol. 175, Issue 4, pp. 304–314.
23. Gasperini D., Allemand P., Delacourt C., Grandjean P. Potential and limitation of UAV for monitoring subsidence in municipal landfills International Journal of Environmental Technology and Management. 2014, Vol. 17, No. 1, pp. 1–13.
24. Haala N., Cramer M., Weimer F., Trittler M. Performance test on uav-based photogrammetric data collection International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, Vol. XXXVIII-1/C22. 2011, pp. 1 – 6.
25. Karathanassi V., Chousiafis C., Grammatikou Z. Monitoring the Change in Volume of Waste in Landfill Using SAR Interferometry 32 EARSeL Symposium 2012 Advances in Geosciences. 2012, pp. 540–551.
26. Kraus K. Zur Genauigkeit der Volumenbestimmung Zeitschrift fuer Vermessungswesen. 2000, 125(12), pp. 398–402.
27. Kwarteng A., Al-Enezi A. Assessment of Kuwait's Al-Qurain Landfill Using Remotely Sensed Data Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A: Toxic/Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering. 2004, Vol. 39, Issue 2, pp. 351–364.
28. Lee Y., Cho S., Kang J. A Study on the Waste Volume Calculation for Efficient Monitoring of the Landfill Facility Computer Applications for Database, Education, and Ubiquitous Computing. 2012, Vol. 352, pp. 158–169.
29. Lega M., Ferrara C., Kosmatka J., Persechino G., Napoli R.M.A. Thermal Pattern and Thermal Tracking: fingerprints of an environmental illicit 11th International Conference on Quantitative InfraRed Thermography. 2012,
30. Mayr W. 3D-Geospatial Data using Unmanned Airborne Vehicles Waste-to-Resources. 2015, pp. 548–556.
31. Mudura R., Trif A., Nedelcu B., Bara C. Calculate the volume of landfill cristesti, mures using the classical method and digital terrain model using picture from UAV. 14th International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference SGEM 2014. Vol. 2, pp. 113–120.
32. Mueller G., Moeser, M., Schlemer, H., Werner, H. Handbuch Ingenieurgeodaesie. Strassenbau, 2., voellig neu bearbeitete und erweiterte Auflage Heidelberg: Herbert Wichmann Verlag, 2001, pp. 247–249.
33. Press W. H., Flannery B. P., Teukolsky S. A., Vetterling W. T. Numerical Recipes in Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.1988.
34. Schwarzbach M., Putze U., Kirchgaessner U., Schoenermark M. v. Acquisition of High Quality Remote Sensing Data Using a UAV Controlled by an Open Source Autopilot International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference. 2009, Vol. 3, pp. 595–601.
35. Siebert S., Teizer J. Mobile 3D mapping for surveying earthwork projects using an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) system. Automation in Construction. 2014, 41, pp. 1–14.
36. Trimble Business Center Office Software
37. Tserng H. P., Russell J. S. A 3-D Graphical Database System for Landfill Operations Using GPS Computer-Aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering. 2002, Vol. 17, Issue 5, pp. 330–341.
38. Urbančič T., Grahor V., Koler B. Vpliv velikosti mrežne celice in metod interpolacij na izračunano prostornino GEODETSKI VESTNIK. Vol. 59, no. 2, pp. 231–245.