Study of digital elevation models of objects of historical and cultural heritage created over different years
Received: September 02, 2022
Lviv polytechnic National University
Lviv Polytechnic National University
Lviv Polytechnic National University
Lviv Polytechnic National University
Lviv Polytechnic National University

The purpose of the work is to investigate the digital elevation models of the mass grave of 1944, built on the basis of aerial and cartographic data of different times. The implementation of the task involves the construction of digital elevation models (DEM) on the territory of the Jewish mass grave in the city of Vynnyky and Italian prisoners of war near the city. On the territory of the Jewish mass grave in the city of Vynnyky, a DEM was created based on a stereo pair of archival aerial images obtained in 1944 and on the basis of aerial photography from a UAV conducted in 2015. Since archival aerial photographs did not contain orientation elements, they were geometrically transformed using the ErdasImagine software. After that, the stereo pair was processed in the program Digitals, where relief elements on the territory of the mass grave were obtained. Aerial photography from a UAV on the territory of the city of Vynnyky provided the data which was processed in the Agisoft PhotoScan software. It allowed us to create an orthophoto plan and an elevation map of the city territory. Elements of relief on the territory of the mass grave of 1944 and 2015 were imported into the Surfer software environment, where 3D digital elevation models were built. Since the territory of the grave did not have significant differences in height, and the relief was quite gentle, the method of constructing the DEM of the Natural Neighbor was chosen, which gave a positive result. Analyzing the digital elevation model and the vector map for 1944, the border of the mass grave is clearly distinguished, since the height difference between its edges and the rest of the territory is from 20 to 36 cm, depending on the section of the border. The analysis of the digital elevation models and the vector map for 2015 of the territory of the mass grave determined from the aerial image of 1944 showed that the characteristic height differences on the former border of the grave are observed only in the left-right corner of the grave and on a separate section of the right border. Height difference indicators range from 15 to 20 cm. It should be noted that height differences are also observed in the rest of the territory belonging to the mass grave and outside it. This can be explained by many years of human intervention and agricultural land use. With regard to the investigation of the mass graves of Italian prisoners of war near the city of Vynnyky, the modern territory is 100% wooded, which makes it impossible to apply aerial photography. Therefore, in order to compare the modern DEM with the stereo pair of aerial images of 1944, it was decided to conduct a ground tacheometric survey of the area in 2011. Tacheometric survey data was exported to the dxf exchange format, after which it was opened in Surfer and the DEM was built. In this case, digital elevation models were built using the Kriging method, since the area where the mass graves are located is quite hilly with a significant difference in elevation. According to the digital elevation models, 54 pits with burials that have survived to this day have been identified. The scientific novelty of the work consists in the development of the concept of combining disparate data for the construction of digital elevation models  and the creation of a complete picture of the study of the territory of the object of historical and cultural heritage. The received data can be used by the relevant cultural heritage preservation departments of the Ministry of Culture of Ukraine for their further study.

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