Geological structure of Peninic nappe of Ukrainian Carpathians

Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals of NAS of Ukraine
Instytut Geology of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
DP "Zahidukrheolohiya
Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals of NAS of Ukraine

Purpose. The aim of the research is to study the geological structure of the Peninic nappe of the Ukrainian Carpathians taking into account new data of geology and geophysics. Methodology. The research methodology includes a detailed comprehensive analysis of geological survey data, prospecting, drilling, and geophysical studies of the Peninic nappe. Results. The Peninic nappe include the rocks of Triassic – Oligocene ages is the South-West unit of the Outer (Flysch) Carpathians. At present the idea that the Peninic nappe belongs to the Transcarpathian deep fault which separate Outer and Inner Carpathians is prevailed. This view is based largely on the notion that Jurassic and Neocomian limestones within the nappe are a tectonites, created in this fault. During these studies it is proven that Jurassic-Neocomian cliffs (klippen) are not tectonic blocks but olistolites of the gravitational-sedimentary origin as a part of the Cretaceous olistostrome. The Peninic tectonic unit is a typical cover structure of the Carpathians but not a zone of development of giant tectonic breccia and is not a zone of the Transcarpathian fault. Structure of the nappe has no differences from the others nappes of the Outer Carpathians. Under Neogene cover the deposits of the Pieninic nappe are contacted with elements of the Inner Carpathians but not overall. In the Solotvyno depression the Lesarnia ctructure is found thrusting on the Peninic nappe.This structure has Cretaceous deposits in its composition, and excludes direct impact on the nappe of the Transcarpathian fault. It is distinguished by the presence of the stratigraphic gap during after Aptian time in Pieninic nappe and accordingly the presence of the Austrian folding phase. Paleogene deposits of the Perychyn area is not Vulshava suit of the Inner Carpathians but Vulkhovchyk one of the the Peninic nappe which is built up by Oligocene. The Peninic nappe does not spread in the area of Poiana Botizii on the Romanian territory but changes its direction to South-West according with the turn of the volcanic Oash-Sholes ridge and the Monastyrets subnappe. It is identified that thrusting in the Pieninic nappe was in the interval after Oligecene and during Karpathian. The refined geological map of the Peninic nappe was created with a scale of 1:100 000, as well four geological cross sections through all sections of the nappe. Originality. Almost all presented results were also considered by various geologists as a probable or alternative hypotheses. This concerns first of all explained the klippen as olistolites and not tectonite. However, in support of this version not enough evidence was given to conclusively support it. The same remark applies to the rest of the results. In this paper all the results are fully considered and are backed by sufficient evidence. Practical significance. The results of the research give an opportunity to develop ideas about the Peninic tectonic unit as an transitional link between the Inner and Outer Carpathians. A refined geological map can be used for practical tasks. Underthrust of Peninic nappe is potentially promising for commercial oil-and-gas content.

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