The connection of chemical composition and physical properties in mountain rocks of the Earth's crust and mantle and their dynamic changes under different thermobaric conditions
Received: January 24, 2022
Instytut heolohii NAN Azerbaidzhanu, m. Baku, Azerbaidzhan

Determining the physical parameters of geomaterials under high temperature and pressure conditions is necessary in connection with the fundamental issues of geology and geophysics. It is also aimed at solving applied problems, such as establishing relationships between physical parameters and chemical components of rocks under the earthly conditions of temperature and pressure. The purpose of the paper is to study the peculiarities of the influence of chemical components on the elastic and density properties of igneous and metamorphic rocks of the continental and oceanic lithosphere under high temperature and pressure conditions. The elastic and density characteristics of the rocks of the continental and oceanic lithosphere were determined by the ultrasonic pulse method. The experiments were carried out in a high-pressure solid-phase installation of a cylinder-piston type. The technique provides for the simultaneous determination of the longitudinal and transverse waves velocity and density in the course of one experiment on one rock sample at high temperature and pressure conditions up to 1.5-2.0 GPa. Based on an experimental study of the elastic and density properties of the rocks of the continental and oceanic lithosphere, the research revealed a qualitative connection between these parameters and chemical composition of the samples under high temperature and pressure conditions. It is first established that the studied rocks demonstrate regional dependence in the influence of oxides on the elastic wave velocity and density magnitude. Therefore they increase with the growing pressure in some areas, and decrease in others. This phenomenon is explained by the difference in the atomic structure of matter. It was revealed that in the section of the lithosphere, the speed and density of elastic waves increase with depth. Moreover, chemical composition of rocks changes from acid to medium, basic, and, finally, ultrabasic composition. The relationship of the chemical composition of rocks and minerals with elastic and density properties makes it possible to directly search for solid minerals.

  1. Azizbekov, Sh. R., Bagirov, A. R.,Veliev, M. M., Ismail-zade, A. D., Yemelyanova, E. N., & Mamedov. M. N. (1979). Geology and volcanism of Talysh. Baku, Elm, 246 p. (in Russian).
  2. Birch, F. (1960). The velocity of compressional waves in rocks to 10 kilobars: 1. Journal of Geophysical Research65(4), 1083-1102.
  3. Boadu, F. K. (2000). Predicting the transport properties of fractured rocks from seismic information: numerical experiments. Journal of applied geophysics44(2-3), 103-113.
  4. Freund, D. (1992). Ultrasonic compressional and shear velocities in dry clastic rocks as a function of porosity, clay content, and confining pressure. Geophysical Journal International108(1), 125-135.
  5. Kahraman, S., & Yeken, T. (2008). Determination of physical properties of carbonate rocks from P-wave velocity. Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment67(2), 277-281.
  6. Khandelwal, M., & Ranjith, P. G. (2010). Correlating index properties of rocks with P-wave measurements. Journal of applied geophysics71(1), 1-5.
  7. Kireenkova, S. M., & Safarov, I. B. ( 1979). Simultaneous determination of the velocities of longitudinal and transverse waves in rocks at high pressures. Izv. AN SSSR, Physics of the Earth, N12, p. 93-98 (in Russian).
  8. Kurtuluş, C., Sertçelik, F. A. D. İ. M. E., & Sertçelik, I. (2016). Correlating physico-mechanical properties of intact rocks with P-wave velocity. Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica51(3), 571-582.
  9. Lutz, B. G. (1975), The chemical composition of the continental crust and the upper mantle of the Earth. Moscow, Science, 167 p.
  10. Lutz, B. G. (1980). Geochemistry of oceanic and continental magmatism. Moscow, Nedra, 247 p.
  11. Moradian, Z. A., & Behnia, M. (2009). Predicting the uniaxial compressive strength and static Young’s modulus of intact sedimentary rocks using the ultrasonic test. International Journal of Geomechanics9(1), 14-19.
  12. Mushkin, I. V. (1979). Petrology of the upper mantle of the Southern Tien Shan. Tashkent, Fan, 136 p. (in Russian).
  13. Dortman, N. B. (1992). Petrophysics. Directory. (In three books. The first book. Rocks and useful minerals (edited by NB Dortman). Moscow, Nedra, 391 p. (in Russian).
  14. Physicochemical and petrophysical studies in the Earth sciences (1999). II Int. Conf. Moscow: Science, 55 p. (in Russian).
  15. Safarov, I. B. (1984). Investigation of the elastic and density properties of rocks and  minerals of the deep layers of the earth's crust and upper mantle at high thermodynamic conditions. Author's abstract. Cand. diss. M., IFZ AS USSR, 20 p. (in Russian).
  16. Safarov, I. B. (2011). Petrophysical models of lithospheric plates of continents and oceans. Baku, Elm, 306 p. (in Russian).
  17. Safarov, I. B. ( 2006). Petrophysical characteristics of crustal and mantle eclogites under high thermodynamic conditions and their position in the Earth's lithosphere. Izv. ANAS, series of Earth Sciences, No. 4, p. 31-43 (in Russian).
  18. Safarov, I. B. (2003). Anisotropy of elastic properties at high thermodynamic conditions and petrophysical models of the lithosphere. Author's abstract. Doct. diss. Baku, IG NANA, 47 p. (in Russian).
  19. Safarov, I. B., & Levykin, A. I. (1992). Device for determining elastic characteristics  materials. A.S. 1742710 (USSR), Bull. No. 223 (in Russian).
  20. Safarov, I. B., & Kireenkova, S. M. (1985). Device for determining the elastic characteristics of materials – А.С. No. 1183885 (USSR), Bull. No 37 (in Russian).
  21. Smorodinov, M. I., Motovilov, E. A., & Volvov, V. A. (1970). Determinations of correlation relationships between strength and some physical characteristics of rocks. In: Proceedings of the second congress of the international society for rock mechanics, Vol. 2. Belgrade, pp. 35–37.
  22. Smorodinov, M. I. (1966). Determinations of correlation relationships between strength and some physical characteristics of rocks. In Proc. of 1st Int. Congress of ISRM, Lisvbon.
  23. Sobolev, V. S., Sobolev, N. V. (1964), Xenoliths in the kimberlites of Northern Yakutia and the structure of the Earth's mantle. Dokl. AN SSSR, v. 158, No. 1 (in Russian).
  24. Udovkina, N. G. (1985), Eclogites of the USSR. M.: Science, 285 p. (in Russian).
  25. Volarovich, M. P., Bayuk, E. I., Levykin, A. I., & Tomashevskaya, I. S. (1974). Physical properties of rocks and minerals at high pressures and temperatures. M., Science, 223 p. (in Russian).
  26. Yasar, E., & Erdogan, Y. (2004). Correlating sound velocity with the density, compressive strength and Young's modulus of carbonate rocks. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences41(5), 871-875.