Study of horizontal displacements of the channel of Dniester river using remote sensing data and GIS-technologies
Received: September 11, 2017
Lviv Polytechnic National University
Lviv Polytechnic National University
Lviv Polytechnic National University

Aim. The aim of the work is to research the method of studying horizontal displacements in the channel of the Dniester river from town Galich to town Zalishchiki using topographic maps of different periods, special maps, and space images. Such an integrated approach of using various data for receiving input information about the river bed together with processing in ArcGIS made it possible to monitor the displacements of the channel, and to determine displacement values over a significant period of time. Soil maps and maps of Quaternary deposits are the basis for identifying the significant causes of the displacements of the channel. Method. The main reasons of displacements and meandering of the Dniester river bed were considered. The monitoring was carried out on the site (with a total length of about 100 km) from town Galich to town Zalishchiki for over a 100-years period. Materials for conducting research included topographic maps (1910, 1923, 1976) and space images obtained from satellites Landsat 5 (1986), Landsat 7 (2000) and Sentinel (2017), as well as special ground maps and maps of Quaternary deposits. The general workflow of data processing is presented and fragments of the channel of the Dniester river bed are shown, as vectorized topographic maps. Visualization and studies of changes in the Dniester river bed were carried out with ArcGIS 10.1 software. The sinuosity coefficients of the Dniester river channel were determined, and measurements of the maximum displacements of the river in its five selected fragments of the channel were performed. Measurements were made at selected points. At the same time, the area of the islands and the meanders were measured. DEM was created based on topographic maps with a scale of 1: 100000 for researching the reasons of river channels displacements. To determine the reasons which caused displacements, the boundaries of the Precarpathian bend and Podolsk-Volynsky hills are shown as their structures influence the formation of the character of the Dniester River bed.  Maps of Quaternary deposits and soils have been analyzed. Results. The research area is characterized by a high rate of sinuosity coefficient with a significant number of meanders. The study of the displacements of the Dniester River indicates a significant meandering in the flat part and an almost unchanging nature of the channel in the hilly part. Hydrotechnical works, carried out in the 1920-80's, significantly reduced sinuosity and meandering, compared to the natural character of the channel in the 1910. The maximum displacement during the 100-year period is 900 meters. From the analysis of the soil maps and maps of the Quaternary sediments, it has been established that the places of maximum displacement of the channel are associated with the alluvial sediments in the 1st and, 3rd floodplain terraces in podzolic and marsh soils. Scientific novelty. It was established that the main effective method for forecasting channel changes is a hydrological and morphological analysis based on different topographical information, and information obtained on the basis of remote sensing data, which involves the combination and analysis of modern and past configurations of the river bed. The main factors of channel formation are: floods; lithological structure and hydrogeology; neotectonic movements; and the accumulation and erosion of sediment on the floodplain. Practical significance. The results of the monitoring of the deformation processes of the riverbed must be taken into account when solving a number of tasks related to the channel’s processes, in particular: designing and constructing hydrotechnical objects; designing power line locations within the transition area of the rivers; carrying out gas transportation networks routes; definition of flood zones and scales of destruction after flood phenomena; realization of recreational activity; establishment of boundaries of protected lands; and the study of the state of the border lands for the establishment of the border along the river fairway.

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