The paper analyzes the vertical displacements of the GNSS sites of civil engineering structures caused by non-tidal atmospheric loading (NTAL). The object of the study is the Dnister Hydroelectric Power Plant №1 (HPP-1) and its GNSS monitoring network. The initial data are the RINEX-files of 14 GNSS stations of the Dnister HPP-1 and 8 permanent GNSS stations within a radius of 100 km, the NTAL model downloaded from the repository of German Research Centre for Geosciences GFZ for 2019-2021, and materials on the geological structure of the object. Methods include comparison and analysis of the altitude component of GNSS time series with model values of NTAL as well as interpretation of the geodynamic vertical displacements, taking into account the analysis of the geological structure. As a result, it was found that the sites of the GNSS network of the Dnister HPP-1 undergo less vertical displacements than the permanent GNSS stations within a radius of 100 km. This corresponds to the difference in thickness and density of the rocks under the GNSS sites and stations, so they undergo different elastic deformations by the same NTAL. In addition, the research detected different dynamics of vertical displacements of GNSS sites on the dam and on the river banks. It leads to cracks and deformations of concrete structures in the dam-bank contact zones. During the anomalous impact of NTAL, the altitude of even nearby sites can change if the geological structure beneath them is different. The work shows that for civil engineering structures it is necessary to apply special models to take into account NTAL deformations for high-precision engineering and geodetic measurements.
1. Barzaghi, R., Cazzaniga, N. E., De Gaetani, C. I., Pinto, L., & Tornatore, V. (2018). Estimating and comparing dam deformation using classical and GNSS techniques. Sensors, 18(3), 756.
2. Behr, J. A., Hudnut, K. W., & King, N. E. (1998, September). Monitoring structural deformation at Pacoima dam, California using continuous GPS. In Proceedings of the 11th International Technical Meeting of the Satellite Division of the Institute of Navigation (ION GPS 1998) (pp. 59-68).
3. Bisovetsky, Yu., Tretyak, К., and Shchuchik, E. (2011). Automation of geodetic observations of hydraulic structures of «Ukrhydroenergo» hydroelectric power stations. Hydropower of Ukraine, 2, 45-51. (In Ukrainian)
4. Brusak, I., & Tretyak, K. (2020, December). About the phenomenon of subsidence in continental Europe in December 2019 based on the GNSS stations data. In International Conference of Young Professionals «GeoTerrace-2020» (Vol. 2020, No. 1, pp. 1-5). European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.
5. Brusak, I., & Tretyak, K. (2021, October). On the impact of non-tidal atmospheric loading on the GNSS stations of regional networks and engineering facilities. In International Conference of Young Professionals «GeoTerrace-2021». European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.
6. Bubniak, A. M., Bubniak, I. M., & Zyhar, A. I. (2020, May). Lineaments analysis of the Dnister area (between Bakota and Novodnistrovsk). In Geoinformatics: Theoretical and Applied Aspects. (Vol. 2020, No. 1, pp. 1-4). European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.
7. Dach, R., Böhm, J., Lutz, S., Steigenberger, P., & Beutler, G. (2011). Evaluation of the impact of atmospheric pressure loading modeling on GNSS data analysis. Journal of geodesy, 85(2), 75-91.
8. Dach, R., Lutz, S., Walser, P., & Fridez, P. (2015). Bernese GNSS software version 5.2.
9. Dardanelli, G., La Loggia, G., Perfetti, N., Capodici, F., Puccio, L., & Maltese, A. (2014, October). Monitoring displacements of an earthen dam using GNSS and remote sensing. In Remote Sensing for Agriculture, Ecosystems, and Hydrology XVI (Vol. 9239, p. 923928). International Society for Optics and Photonics.
10. ESMGFZ; Earth System Modelling at GFZ. Online Access: http://esmdata.gfz-potsdam.de
11. Geological map of Ukraine (2008) in scale 1: 200 000. Volyn-Podilsky series, M-35-XXVIII (Bar), M35-XXXIV (Mohyliv-Podilsky). Explanatory note. (In Ukrainian)
12. Glomsda, M., Bloßfeld, M., Gerstl, M., Kwak, Y., Seitz, M., Angermann, D., & Seitz, F. (2019). Impact of non-tidal loading in VLBI analysis. In 24th Meeting of the European VLBI Group for Geodesy and Astrometry.
13. Kalinnikov, V., Ustinov, A., & Kosarev, N. (2020). Impact of atmospheric loadings on the results of GNSS monitoring of the main building of Zagorskaya PSPP-2 by PPP method. Vestnik SGUGiT (Sibirskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta geosistem i tekhnologiy), 25(3), 34-41. (In Russian)
14. Mémin, A., Boy, J. P., & Santamaria-Gomez, A. (2020). Correcting GPS measurements for non-tidal loading. GPS Solutions, 24(2), 1-13.
15. Mohylnyi, S., Sholomitskyi, A., Shmorhun E., Pryharov V. (2010) Automated system of geodetic monitoring. Modern Achievements in Geodetic Science and Industry, 19, 193-197. (in Ukrainian)
16. Petrov, L. (2015). The international mass loading service. In REFAG 2014 (pp. 79-83). Springer, Cham.
17. Petrov, L., & Boy, J. P. (2003). Study of the atmospheric pressure loading signal in VLBI observations, submitted to J. Geophys. Res.
18. Rodrigues, E. P. (2007). Estimation of crustal vertical movements due to atmospheric loading effects by GPS observations. Revista Brasileira de Geofísica, 25, 45-50.
19. Sarnavski, V., Ovsiannikov, M., (2005) Tectonic structure and geodynamic mode ofrock masses in the zone of interaction with hydromechanical structures of HPP and PSPP (on the example of the Dnister complex hydro unit), Modern Achv. geodetic Sci. Prod. 2, 193-206 (in Ukrainian).
20. Savchyn, I., & Pronyshyn, R. (2020). Differentiation of recent local geodynamic and seismic processes of technogenic-loaded territories based on the example of Dnister Hydro Power Complex (Ukraine). Geodesy and Geodynamics, 11 (5), 391-400
21. Tregoning, P., & van Dam, T. (2005). Atmospheric pressure loading corrections applied to GPS data at the observation level. Geophysical Research Letters, 32(22).
22. Tregoning, P., & Watson, C. (2009). Atmospheric effects and spurious signals in GPS analyses. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 114(B9).
23. Tretyak K., Periy S., Sidorov I., Babiy L. (2015) Complex High Accuracy Satellite and Field Measurements of Horizontal and Vertical Displacements of Control Geodetic Network on Dnister Hydroelectric Pumped Power Station (HPPS). Geomatics and environmental engineering, 9 (1), 83-96.
24. Tretyak, K. & Brusak, I. (2021). Method for detecting short-term displacements of the Earth's surface by statistical analysis of GNSS time series. Geodesy, Cartography, and Aerial Photography, 93(1), 27-34.
25. Tretyak, К., Cranenbroeck, J., Balan, А., Lompas, О., Savchyn, І. (2014) Posteriori optimization of accuracy and reliability of active geodetic monitoring network of the Dnister HPP. Geodesy, Cartography, and Aerial Photography, 79, 5-14. (in Ukrainian)
26. Tretyak, К., Korliatovych Т., Brusak І., Smirnova О. (2021a) Differentiation of kinematics of the Dnister HPP-1 dam (based on the data of GNSS monitoring of spatial displacements). Modern Achv. geodetic Sci. Prod. 57-66. (in Ukrainian)
27. Tretyak, K., Korliatovych, T., Brusak, I., (2021b). Applying the statistical method of GNSS time series analysis for the detection of vertical displacements of Dnister HPP-1 dam. In International Conference of Young Professionals «GeoTerrace-2021». European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.
28. Tretyak, К., Savchyn, І., Zayats, O., Golubinka, Yu., Lompas, О., & Bisovetsky, Yu. (2017) Installation and maintenance of automated systems for control of spatial displacements of engineering structures of Ukrainian hydroelectric power plants. Hydropower of Ukraine, (1-2), 33-41 (in Ukrainian)
29. Tretyak, К., Zayats, O., Smirnova, O. (2016) Creation of an automated system for geodetic monitoring of deformations. In VI International Scientific Conference «Geophysical technologies for forecasting and monitoring of the geological environment», 272-275. (in Ukrainian)
30. Ukrhydroproject PRJSC (2017) Rules for the exploitation of water reservoirs of the Dnistrovsky cascade of HPP and PSPP at the NPR 77.10 m of the buffer water reservoir. 732-39-Т48. 106 p. (In Ukrainian)
31. VMF Data Server; editing status 2020-12-14; re3data.org - Registry of Research Data Repositories. http://doi.org/10.17616/R3RD2H
32. Yavaşoğlu, H. H., Kalkan, Y., Tiryakioğlu, İ., Yigit, C. O., Özbey, V., Alkan, M. N., Bilgi S. & Alkan, R. M. (2018). Monitoring the deformation and strain analysis on the Ataturk Dam, Turkey. Geomatics, Natural Hazards and Risk, 9(1), 94-107.
33. Yue, C., Dang, Y., Xu, C., Gu, S., & Dai, H. (2020). Effects and Correction of Atmospheric Pressure Loading Deformation on GNSS Reference Stations in Mainland China. Mathematical Problems in Engineering, 2020.