: 49-55
Received: March 12, 2023
Revised: April 15, 2023
Accepted: May 02, 2023
Lviv Polytechnic National University
Lviv Polytechnic National University, Department of highways and bridges
Lviv Polytechnic National University, Department of Highways and Bridges
Lviv Polytechnic National University, department of Highways and Bridges
L'viv Ivan Franko National University

This article describes the classification of cationic bitumen emulsions according to "reactivity" and breaking behaviour characteristics. The methods of researching the characteristics of breaking behaviour for bitumen emulsions of different "reactivity" in accordance with European and Ukrainian regulatory documents are presented. Available possible emulsifiers in Ukraine for over-stabilised bitumen emulsions are given with a description of road technology where they can be applied. The experience of using over-stabilised bitumen cationic emulsions in road construction is characterized. Namely, a literature review of the use of over-stabilised bitumen cationic emulsions in soil stabilization technologies, strengthening of base course materials with emulsion, and "cold recycling" technology was carried out. The regularities of the interaction of over-stabilised bitumen emulsion with finely dispersed mineral binders and fillers are reviewed.

Sidun, I., Solodkyy, S., & Vollis, O. (2019). Acids in bitumen emulsions. JCEEA, t. XXXV, z. 65 (3/18). 83-90. Doi:10.7862/rb.2018.45
Sidun, I., Solodkyy, S., Vollis, O., Gunka, V., Pyryk, R., & Shits, I. (2020). Orto-phosphoric acid as an alternative to hydrochloric acid - for cationic bitumen road emulsions. Review. Theory and Building Practice. 2(1),  88-93.
Dołżycki, B., Jaskuła, P. (2019). Review and evaluation of cold recycling with bitumen emulsion and cement for rehabilitation of old pavements. Journal of Traffic and Transportation Engineering, 6, 311-323.
Pérez, I., & Rodríguez, L., Val, M. (2013). Mechanical properties and behaviour of in situ materials which are stabilised with bitumen emulsion. Road Materials and Pavement Design. 14. 221-238. 10.1080/14680629.2013.779301.
Liu, Z., Huo, J., & Wang, Z. (2020). Investigation on Properties of Cement Bitumen Emulsion Mortars (CBEM) in Consideration of Emulsifier Types. Advances in Materials Science and Engineering, 2020, 1-10.
Grilli, A., A Graziani, A., Bocci, M. (2012) Compactability and thermal sensitivity of cement-bitumen-treated materials, Road Materials and Pavement Design, 13:4, 599-617, DOI: 10.1080/14680629.2012.742624
GrillI, A.,  Bocci, M.,  Graziani, A. (2013) Influence of reclaimed asphalt content on the mechanical behaviour of cement-treated mixtures, Road Materials and Pavement Design, 14:3, 666-678, DOI: 10.1080/14680629.2013.794367
GrillI, A., Cardone, F., Bocci, M.  (2018) Mechanical behaviour of cement-bitumen treated materials containing different amounts of reclaimed asphalt, European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering, 22:7, 836-851, DOI: 10.1080/19648189.2016.1219972
Grilli A., Graziani, A., Bocci E., Bocci M. (2016). Volumetric properties and influence of water content on the compactability of cold recycled mixtures. Materials and Structures, 49 (10), 4349-4362, doi:10.1617/s11527-016-0792-x.
Pasetto, M., Baldo, N. (2020). Cold Recycling with Bitumen Emulsion of Marginal Aggregates for Road Pavements.. Lect. Notes. Civ. Eng., vol. 48, 155-163. 10.1007/978-3-030-29779-4_15
Sidun, I., Bidos, V., Vollis, O., Stanchak, S., Hunka, V. (2022) Over-stabilised cationic bitumen emulsions - a new type of emulsions for Ukraine. Advance in Petroleum and Gas Industry and Petrochemistry, APGIP-11, Lviv,
Ouyang, J., Hu, L., Li, H., Han, B. (2018). Effect of cement on the demulsifying behavior of over-stabilized asphalt emulsion during mixing. Construction and Building Materials. 177. 252-260. 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2018.05.141.
Baldo, N. et al (2021) IOP Conf. Ser.: Mater. Sci. Eng. 1203 022111 DOI 10.1088/1757-899X/1203/2/022111
Vollis, O., Sidun, I. (2017). Ultra-resistant emulsifier for cationic bitumen emulsions. Bulletin of the Kharkiv National Automobile and Road University, 79, 62-65.
Romeo, E., Betti, G., Marradi, A.,  Tebaldi, G. (2018) Effect of active fillers on cracking performance of bitumen-stabilised materials, Road Materials and Pavement Design, 19:7, 1563-1574, DOI: 10.1080/14680629.2017.1325773
Garilli, E., Autelitano, F., & Giuliani, F. (2019). Use of bending beam rheometer test for rheological analysis of asphalt emulsion-cement mastics in cold in-place recycling. Construction and Building Materials. 222. 484-492. 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2019.06.141.
Godenzoni, C., Graziani, A., Bocci, E., Bocci, M. (2018) The evolution of the mechanical behaviour of cold recycled mixtures stabilised with cement and bitumen: field and laboratory study, Road Materials and Pavement Design, 19:4, 856-877, DOI: 10.1080/14680629.2017.1279073
Teja, K. (2011). Improvement of silty soil as subgrade material by stabilizing with bituminous emulsion, Int. J. Engg. Res. Indu. Appls. 8(III), ISSN 0974-1518.
Salomon, D. (2006) Asphalt emulsion technology, in: Transportation Research Board, Characteristics of Bituminous Materials Committee, Transportation Research Circular E-C102, Washington, DC.
Wang, F., Liu, Y.,  Hu, Sh. (2013). Effect of early cement hydration on the chemical stability of asphalt emulsion. Construction and Building Materials. 42. 146-151. 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2013.01.009.
Lesueur, D.,  Potti, J. (2004) Cold mix design: A rational approach based on the current understanding of the breaking of bituminous emulsions, Road Materials and Pavement Design, 5:sup1, 65-87, DOI: 10.1080/14680629.2004.9689988
Cheng-Tsung, L., Ming-Feng, K., Der-Hsien, Sh. (2009). Composition and reaction mechanism of cement-asphalt mastic, Construction and Building Materials, 23(7), 2580-2585, ISSN 0950-0618,
Seyed Morteza, M., Safapour, P. (2009). Base Course Modification through Stabilization using Cement and Bitumen. American Journal of Applied Sciences. 6. 10.3844/ajas.2009.30.42.