: 113-121
Department of Design and Architecture Fundamentals Lviv Polytechnic National University
Lviv Branch of Kyiv National University of Culture and Arts

The remains of defensive structures are an important component of the holistic perception of the historical context of many settlements in Ukraine. Local administrations show interest in creating graphic reconstructions of monuments as one of the easiest means of popularizing the historical heritage of the area. Over the past decades, the technical capabilities of modeling historical defense objects in three-dimensional images have significantly improved, which has actualized the problem not only of creating realistic images in the transmission of the environment, but also of creating reliable models that can serve as an information base for scientific discussions and the basis of shaping the cultural development of the population. On the way to creating graphic reconstructions of defense structures, a number of problems arise related to the need to reconstruct lost elements about which there is insufficient information. The remains of wooden and earthen fortifications, although they are more numerous than those of masonry, are much worse preserved. Insufficient study of this type of fortifications, especially from
the period of the 16th - 17th centuries, can lead to the selection of false analogues and the implementation of unreliable
The article applies the methodology of studying defense structures based on the signs of belonging to a certain system of organization of defense structures. Differences in the solution of wooden shaft structures before and after the period of the spread of artillery are characterized. Problems of interpretation of information from written sources about the existence of shafts and their accompanying wooden structures in the 16th–17th centuries are highlighted. Examples of references to wooden elements of bastion fortifications in written sources are given. Treatises on fortification of the 16th–17th centuries have been analyzed. on the subject of determining the principles of strengthening shafts with wooden elements that were used for external equipment (stockade, paling, wattle, palisade, stakes, etc.).
Results of our investigations can be applied in graphic reconstruction and visualization of defensive structures of the 16th–17th centuries, carried on according to the principles of the bastion and round bastion systems of fortifications.

Aleksandrovych, V. (2003a). Inventory of the Olytsk castle in 1755. Bulletin of Lviv University. Lviv, Vyp.3, S. 301-331.

Aleksandrovych, V. (2003v). Inventories of castles in Stryi and Kalush from the end of the 17th century. Drohobytskyi kraieznavchyi zb., Drohobych, S. 524-538

Werdum, von, Ulrich, (1983). Diary / trans. with him I. I. Svarnyk. Zhovten, Lviv : Kameniar, 10 (468), S. 89-105.

Ihnatenoko I. (2012). Justification of the virtual 3D reconstruction of the Upper Castle in Chernihiv at the turn of the XVII-XVIII centuries, Nizhynska starovyna, 14, S. 121-128.

Map of the General Directorate of the Red Army (1939). M-1:25 000 XXXI-18-E [online] Archiwum Map WIG. Dostupno: <http://igrek.amzp.pl/mapindex.php> [Data zvernennia 1 lypnia 2020].

Lytvynchuk, I., Rybchynskyi, O. (2021). Urban defensive complex of the city of Bar (Riv) in the XV–XVIII centuries. an attempt at a hypothetical reconstruction based on an unknown plan of 1821. Arkheolohiia & Fortyfikatsiia Ukrainy, Kam’ianets-Podilskyi, S. 188-196.

Lukomska, Z. V. (2015). Peculiarities of the historical and urban development of the city of Strya. Modern problems of architecture and urban planning. Vyp. 38

Okonchenko, O. M. (2015). Architecture of castle fortifications of Western Ukraine of the middle of the 16th - end of the 17th centuries: abstract of the dissertation. ... candidate arch.: 18.00.01, Lviv, 23 s.

Okonchenko, O. M., Okonchenko, I.V. (2016). Preservation of the defensive architecture of the castles of Western Ukraine. Electronic collection of materials of the All-Ukrainian Scientific and Practical Internet Conference "Problems of the Development of Design Education in Ukraine", Lviv: NULP.

Pshyk V. (2008). Fortified cities, castles, defensive courtyards and castellated sacred buildings of the Lviv region of the 13th–18th centuries, Lviv, 240 s.

Frolova Yu. (2019a). Restoration of the appearance of the Kilia fortress according to iconographic sources of 1770 and 1794. Arkhitekturnyi visnyk KNUBA, 20, s. 224–235. https://doi.org/10.32347/2519-8661.2019.20.217-228

Frolova Yu. (2019v). Spatial models of the Kilia fortress until the end of the 18th century. Current issues in research, conservation and restoration of historic fortifications, 11, pp. 71–87.

Defense of Chhyryn 1678. Plan of the fortress of Chhyryn, 1678, from Patrick Gordon's diary [online] Available at: <https://uk.wikipedia.org/wiki> [Date of reference 24 September 2022].

Bevz, M. (2020). Fortifications of western Ukrainian cities on the base of analysis of 1772 Rudolf d`Ottos map. Current issue in research, conservation and restoration of historic fortifications, 12, Chelm-Lviv, P. 10-34.

Dilichium W. (1641). Peribologia oder Bericht Wilhelmi Dilichij Hist. [online] Frankfurt, Humm, Available at: <https://fotothek.slub-dresden.de/fotos/df/tg/0008000/df_tg_0008946.jpg> [Date of reference 20 September 2022].

Floriani, Pietro Paolo. (1630). Diffesa et offesa delle piazze.[online] The Getty Research Institute. Available at: <http://archive.org/details/diffesaetoffesad00flor> [Date of reference 1 July 2020]

Maggi, G., Castriotto J. (1583). Fortificatione delle Citta, Libri III, Venetia, 136s. [online] The Getty Research Institute. Available at: <http://www.archive.org/details/dellafortificati00magg> [Date of reference 1 July 2020]

Okonchenko, O., Okonchenko, I. (2017). State of Preservation of the 16th – 17th Centuries Castle Fortifications on the Territory of Western Ukraine. Current issues in research conservation and restoration of historic fortifications, 9, Chełm-Lviv, S. 202-208.

Naronowicz – Naroński, J. (1957). Budownictwo wojenne, Warszawa: Wydaw. Min. obrony narodowej, 271 s.

Rybchynskyi N-M. (2021). Graphic reconstruction of defense bulwark of the third fortified settlement of IX – X centuries. in the Korosten city (on basis of archaeological data) Fortifications. 2021; 14, 2544-6517, p. 132-142 https://doi.org/10.23939/fortifications2020.14.132

The London Charter for the Computer-based Visualisation of Cultural Heritage (2.1, February 2009). Available at: <https://www.londoncharter.org/principles> [Date of reference 16 November 2021]

Zamorski Br. (1867). Kronika Pomorzańska, Lwów : Nakl. autora, 184 s.

Webersfeld, E. (1909). Jaworów. Monografia historyczna, etnograficzna i statystyczna. Lwów, s. 82 [online] СВN Polona. Available at: < https://www.polpna.pl/item/3531652/3/> [Date of reference 20 September 2022].