The remains of defensive structures are an important component of the holistic perception of the historical context of many settlements in Ukraine. Local administrations show interest in creating graphic reconstructions of monuments as one of the easiest means of popularizing the historical heritage of the area. Over the past decades, the technical capabilities of modeling historical defense objects in three-dimensional images have significantly improved, which has actualized the problem not only of creating realistic images in the transmission of the environment, but also of creating reliable models that can serve as an information base for scientific discussions and the basis of shaping the cultural development of the population. On the way to creating graphic reconstructions of defense structures, a number of problems arise related to the need to reconstruct lost elements about which there is insufficient information. The remains of wooden and earthen fortifications, although they are more numerous than those of masonry, are much worse preserved. Insufficient study of this type of fortifications, especially from
the period of the 16th - 17th centuries, can lead to the selection of false analogues and the implementation of unreliable
The article applies the methodology of studying defense structures based on the signs of belonging to a certain system of organization of defense structures. Differences in the solution of wooden shaft structures before and after the period of the spread of artillery are characterized. Problems of interpretation of information from written sources about the existence of shafts and their accompanying wooden structures in the 16th–17th centuries are highlighted. Examples of references to wooden elements of bastion fortifications in written sources are given. Treatises on fortification of the 16th–17th centuries have been analyzed. on the subject of determining the principles of strengthening shafts with wooden elements that were used for external equipment (stockade, paling, wattle, palisade, stakes, etc.).
Results of our investigations can be applied in graphic reconstruction and visualization of defensive structures of the 16th–17th centuries, carried on according to the principles of the bastion and round bastion systems of fortifications.
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