: 184-189
Lviv Polytechnic National University
Lviv Polytechnic National University
Lviv Polytechnic National University
Lviv Polytechnic National University

According to experts, today in Ukraine a quarter of sewage treatment plants and networks worked in value term depreciation. As a result, a large number of cleaning stations decommissioned and wastewater that must be disposed of at these sites, get into the environment completely untreated, causing serious concern because they pose a potential threat to health and life.

Most operating sewage treatment plants has a number of drawbacks. The main reason for their occurrence is obsolete technologies used in treatment systems. In particular, the characteristics of most plants is the low efficiency, poor sewage treatment and disposal of unresolved issues sludge .

In order to intensify parameters of the industrial wastewater treatment scheme investigation of wastewater quality and activated sludge at wastewater treatment plant was carried out, using biotechnological methods according to principles of sustainable development

                 Formulation of the problem. At present, most of the sewage treatment facilities in Ukraine have expired the depreciation period. A large number of purification stations have been decommissioned and drains that need to be disposed of at these sites are released into the environment unprocessed, causing serious concern, as they pose a threat to the health and life of people.
             Most of the treatment facilities have a number of shortcomings. One of the reasons for their occurrence is the outdated technologies used for sewage treatment. For most stations, low energy efficiency, insufficient degree of wastewater treatment and the problem of utilization of spent active sludge are characteristic.

 The problem is also the contamination of waste effluents by landfill filtrate.
Existing cleaning technologies do not provide the required efficiency of industrial and domestic water treatment, and  also do not meet the modern requirements for providing the conditions for its purification.

 The object of experimental research was the purification of urban wastewater from pollutants of various nature (optimization of the process of wastewater treatment of ammonium compounds in aerotanks, cleaning of highly concentrated ammonia wastewater - dewatering filtrate of spent active sludge, purification from surfactants).
Development of measures to reduce the level of environmental hazard by purifying the municipal wastewater from nitrogen compounds, surfactants and was the subject of research.
The main process of wastewater treatment from ammonium ions is the process of nitrification. However, this process is quite energy-intensive, due to the high consumption of oxygen for aeration. Therefore, it would be advisable to minimize energy consumption by introducing automatic regulation of oxygen supply, depending on the concentration of ammoniacal nitrogen in the wastewater that is being cleaned.

 Pollution of wastewater purified sewage sludge occurs when the period of biological decomposition of surfactants exceeds the period of their stay in municipal wastewater treatment facilities.

 Therefore, it was necessary to investigate the period of biodegradation of surfactants, This gives the possibility of regulating the supply of contaminated with such compounds waste from companies to the treatment facilities. The process can be carried out by preliminary purification of wastewater containing surfactant, with a large period of biological decomposition, first at the local treatment facilities of enterprises, and then by dumping them into urban sewage treatment facilities. The filtrate from centrifugation of spent active sludge has a high nitrogen concentration of ammonium (up to 1500 mg / l). Currently, the process of ANAMMOX is becoming widespread. The possibility of its introduction in urban sewage treatment plants would allow cleaning such highly concentrated ammonia waste, with a minimum amount of energy costs. The presence of nitrates in water indicates the aging of contamination by organic compounds. Therefore, it is important to use modern methods and technologies to eliminate nitrogen compounds from water.

1. Broda E. Two kinds of lithotrophs missing in nature / E. Broda // Zeitschrift fur Allgemeine
Mikrobiologie. – 1977. – No. 17. – Р. 491–493. 2. Startup of reactors for anoxic ammonium oxidation:
experiences from the first full-scale anammox reactor in Rotterdam / van der Star W. R. L., Abma W. R.,
Blommers D. [et al.] // Water Research. – 2007. – No. 41. – Р. 4149–4163. 3. Ammonium removal from
concentrated waste streams with the anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) process in different
reactor configuration / Strous M., Van Gerven E., Zheng P. [et al.] // Water Research. – 1997. –
No. 31(8). – Р. 1955–1962. 4. Методика фотометричного визначення нітрит-іонів з реактивом
Грісса в поверхневих та очищених стічних водах: КНД – К., 1995. – 14 с. – (Керівний
нормативний документ). 5. Якість води. Визначення нітрату. Частина 3: Спектрометричний
метод із застосуванням сульфосаліцилової кислоти (ISO 7890-3: 1988, MOD) : ДСТУ 4078-2001. –
[Чинний від 2001-12-28]. – К.: Держстандарт України, 2002. – 7 с. – (Національний стандарт
України). 6. Якість води. Визначення розчиненого кисню. Йодометричний метод (ISO 5813:1983,
IDT): ДСТУ ISO 5813:2004. – [Чинний від 2004-08-02]. – К.: Держспоживстандарт України,
2005. – 7 с. – (Національний стандарт України). 7. Оцінювання здатності до повного аеробного
біологічного розкладання органічних сполук у водному середовищі. Метод із застосуванням аналізу
біохімічного споживання кисню (метод закритої склянки) (ISO 10707:1994, MOD): ДСТУ
4175:2003. – [Чинний від 2004-07-01]. – К.: Держспоживстандарт України, 2004. – 12 с. –
(Національний стандарт України). 8. Якість води. Визначання хімічної потреби в кисні (ISO
6060:1989, IDT): ДСТУ ISO 6060:2003. – [Чинний від 2003-10-06]. – К.: Держспоживстандарт
України, 2004. – 6 с. – (Національний стандарт України). 9. Шандрович В. Т. Застосування процесу
Anammox для очищення стічної води / В. Т. Шандрович, М. С. Мальований // Матер. ХХІ (щорічної)
Міжнар. наук.-техн. конф. “Екологічна і техногенна безпека. Охорона водного і повітряного
басейнів. Утилізація відходів” (Харків, 21–22 листопада 2013 р.). – Харків, 2013. – 113 с.
10. Проблема негативного впливу на гідросферу поверхнево-активних речовин та синтетичних
мийних засобів / Мальований М. С., Дєдик Л. М., Мараховська С. Б. та ін. // Науковий вісник
Національного лісотехнічного університету України: зб. наук.-техн. пр. – Львів: РВВ НЛТУ
України, 2015. – № 25.2. – С. 96–103.