Based on literary analysis, the effectiveness of a range of plants (aquatic: Lemna aoukikusa, Lemna minor, Spirodela polyrhiza, Lemna aequinoctialis; vetiver grass Chrysopogon zizanioides) for the purification of wastewater from antibiotics has been investigated. It has been found that the removal efficiency for various types of antibiotics and their concentrations reaches 70 percent or more. This suggests the potential application of these aquatic plants for phytoremediation of wastewater containing antibiotic contaminants.
The issues of rational use of natural resources, ecological safety and environmental protection are extremely urgent and require immediate human influence on the optimization of technological processes, reducing the impact on the ecosystem. The implementation of food industry technology is accompanied by the formation of a significant amount of wastewater, into which about a third of processed raw materials go, and the concentration of polluting components in them is 10...100 times higher than in household water.
The possibility and effectiveness of using a natural sorbent – peat from the Vereshchytsia-Yanivske deposit for treating agricultural wastewater with a high urea content – has been studied. The humidity and moisture content of the upland and lowland types of peat from this peatland were determined. Comparing these indicators made it possible to establish that the lowland peat has a significantly higher humidity and moisture content. The adsorption capacities of wet and dried types of peat for urea were studied and compared.
The paper presents the results of the study of the statics of adsorption of surface-active substances from model solutions by activated carbon and zeolite. The results of photometric determination of the concentration of anionic surfactants before and after adsorption are presented. The results of adsorption capacity calculations are presented. The experimental results using the program (Langmuir 1.03) were numerically calculated. Sorption isotherms of sodium dodecyl sulfate indicate the mechanism of monomolecular physical adsorption.
Batch experiments are applied to determine the effectiveness of zeolite addition on the characteristics of wastewater of the oil industry and operational factors. The concentrations of heavy metals were measured using an atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results have shown that 2.5 g/L of zeolite at a speed of 270 rpm, 6.5 pH would result in about 99% removal efficiency.
The results of the study of the adsorption capacity of a number of sorbents of natural and synthetic origin with respect to iron ions have been clustered. The sorption capacity of the following sorbents was studied: natural zeolite of the Sokyrnytsia deposit, synthetic sorbent based on the ash of Doborotvir heat power plant, Al2O3, SiO2, as well as some types of soils: sandy soil, black soil and clay. Equations describing the regularities of adsorption processes depending on the type of sorbent are obtained.
The article is devoted to the unsatisfactory operation of biological wastewater treatment plants. At present in Ukraine there are no developments of equipment and devices to ensure the operation of treatment facilities using the technology of nitridenitrification of deep wastewater treatment from nitrogen and phosphorus compounds. The analysis of the equipment of biological treatment systems - nitri treatment plant - denitrifier, clarifier tanks is carried out. At the same time, the standards of the degree of purification of both Ukraine and the European Union were taken into account.
The possibility of increasing the efficiency of municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) operation by changing the flow diagram of biological wastewater treatment in aeration tanks at minimum expenses for their reconstruction is shown in the paper on the example of one of the regional centres of Ukraine. The technology of nitri-denitrification of wastewater according to the flow diagram of the two-stage modified Ludzak-Ettinger process is offered for the considered conditions.
Quantitative and qualitative composition of microorganisms have been determined by the microbiological methods of the analysis of natural waters and industrial wastewater. It is shown that the dominant microflora of the studied waters are Diplococcus, Sarcina, Bacillus, Pseudomonas bacteria types, blue-green algae of Oscillatoria types, as well as Saccharomyces yeast types. Morphological, physiological and cultural characteristics of colonies grown on nutrient media were studied to identify microorganisms.
The results of the research of the adsorption capacity of a number of sorbents of natural and synthetic origin for ammonium ions have been clustered. The natural zeolite of the Sokyrnytsia deposit, a synthetic sorbent based on the fly ash of Dobrotvir state district heat power plant, Al2O3, SiO2, as well as some types of soil: sandy soil, black soil, and clay were used in the research. Equations describing the regularities of adsorption processes depending on the type of sorbent were obtained. According to the obtained dendrograms, two main clusters of sorbents were identified.