Chemical Modification of ED-24 Epoxy Resin by Adipic Acid

The possibility of epoxy resin carboxy-containing derivative (CDER) obtaining has been studied on the basis of dianic epoxy resin ED-24 and adipic acid (AA). The synthesized CDER contains epoxy and carboxy groups at the same time. Used catalysts were benzyltriethylammonium chloride (BTEACh); 1,4-diazobicyclo[2,2,2]octane; N,N-dimethylaminopyridine; 18-Crown-6, potassium hydroxide, triethylamine and 18-Crown-6+ZnCl2 catalytic system. The effect of the catalyst nature and amount, reagents ratio, process temperature and time on the reaction proceeding between ED-24 and AA has been determined.

Mechanism of Catalytic Alkylation of 2,6-di-tert-Butylphenol by Methyl Acrylate

The determining factor of the reaction of 2,6-di-tert-butylphenol with alkaline metal hydroxides is temperature, depending on which two types of potassium or sodium 2,6-di-tert-butyl phenoxides are formed with different catalytic activity in the alkylation of 2,6-di-tert-butylphenol with methyl acrylate. More active forms of 2,6-But2C6H3OK or 2,6-But2C6H3ONa are synthesized at temperatures higher than 433 K and represent predominantly monomers of 2,6-di-tert-butyl phenoxides producing dimers on cooling.

Research of Influence of the Nature of Metal on the Mechanism of Synthesis of Polyvinylpyrrolidone Metal Copolymers

The influence of the metal fine filler nature on the polymerization mechanism of polyvinylpyrrolidone-methacrylate compositions in the presence and without iron(II) sulphate has been determined. The catalysis mechanism has been confirmed via complexation with charge transfer between the initial composition components. The metal activating effect increases with the increase of its negative electrochemical potential.

Modified Phenol-Formaldehyde Resins and their Application in Bitumen-Polymeric Mixtures

Phenol-formaldehyde resins (PhFR) with reactive methacrylate fragments or labile peroxy bonds in the side branches used as a polymeric component of bitumen-polymeric mixtures have been investigated. Taking into account that PhFR with peroxy fragments based on epoxy resin does not described in literature, its synthesis procedure has been developed. The kinetic regularities of the reaction between peroxy derivative of epoxy resin (PDER) and phenol group of PhFR were studied taking the reaction of PDER with phenol as an example.

The Process of Wastewater Treatment with Advanced Oxidation Methods to Remove Dye

The research revealed that Fenton reagent is to be utilized to remove the dye (active bright orange CS/5K) from industrial sewage. Hypercube Hyperchem Professional v8.01 software (trial) was used to carry out the quantum-chemical calculation of colouring agent structure and heat energy. Based on the information from references and the received experimental data, the oxidation mechanism of colouring agent (active bright orange CS/5K) by photo-Fenton system has been introduced.

Electrodeposition of Functional Cobalt-Silver and Cobalt-Tungstean Alloys

The kinetic mechanism of cobalt-silver and cobalt-tungsten alloys electrodeposition from citrate-pyrophosphate and citrate electrolyte correspondingly has been established. The influence of electrolyte component ratios as well as polarization pulse on/off time ratios on cobalt alloy composition and its current efficiency has been determined. The cobalt-silver and cobalt-tungsten alloys have been shown to possess catalytic and anticorrosion properties.

Influence of Bi3+ Ions on Kinetics of Lead Dioxide Electrodeposition from Methanesulfonate Electrolytes

Influence of bismuth ions on kinetics of lead dioxide electrodeposition from methanesulfonate electrolytes on Pt-electrode was studied. Experimental results are interpreted to be consistent with the mechanism proposed previously for lead dioxide electrodeposition in literature. The presence of bismuth ions in the electrodeposition solution causes decreasing rate constants of lead dioxide formation due to additive adsorption.

Mechanism and Kinetic Regularities of Inactivating Effects of Cavitation on Microorganisms

Disinfective action of physical-chemical effects accompanying hydrodynamic cavitation on the microorganisms sanitary indices in water has been studied. Disinfection kinetics was found to be dependent on the cavitation field characteristics and the microbes population. Based on the structural-morphological investigation of the E.coli bacteria it was found that antimicrobial effect is obtained due to the mechanical rupture of cells and chemical disinfection, which results from the hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen peroxide effect.

Unsteady Heat Transfer during Encapsulation of Dispersed Materials in Quasi-liquefied State

Experimental and analytical investigations of the heat transfer process during encapsulation of dispersed materials in quasi-liquefied state are presented. The heat-transfer coefficients for different types of materials have been determined during their heating depending on air rate.

Analysis of Dissolution Kinetics based on the Local Isotropic Turbulence Theory

The dissolution kinetics of potassium sulfate dissolved in water under pneumatic mixing has been investigated. The mass transfer coefficients were determined by the experiments, as well as on the basis of the local isotropic turbulence theory. The ratio between theoretical and experimental data was found to be satisfying that allows to determine the theoretical mass transfer coefficient to calculate the mentioned process.